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The Scottish Health Survey: Topic Report: Obesity


Notes and References

[1] Finucane, Marial M; Gretchen A Stevens; Melanie J Cowan et al. 2011. National, regional and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9.1 million participants. Lancet 2011: Vo;. 377 Issue 9765, Pages 557 - 567

[2] WHO: Obesity and Overweight. Fact Sheet No. 311. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index.html accessed 15.08.11

[3] WHO, 2000. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. WHO:Geneva

[4] Foresight (2008). Tackling Obesities: Future Choices - Project Report (2nd edition). London:Government Office for Science.

[5] WHO, 2009. Global Health Risks: Mortality and Burden of Disease attributable to selected major risks. WHO: Geneva.

[6] Based on figures from WHO Global Health Observatory, http://www.who.int/gho/database/en/, accessed 26/08/11

[7] As calculated for the report 'Preventing Overweight and Obesity in Scotland. A Route Map towards healthy weight'. The Scottish Government, Edinburgh 2010. Based on the assumption that Scotland follows US trends with a 10-15 year lag.

[8] Bromley, Catherine et al. 2011. The Scottish Health Survey 2010, Vol. 1: Main report. The Scottish Executive

[9] Grant, I., Fischbacher, C., and Whyte, B. (2007). Obesity in Scotland - An epidemiology briefing. Edinburgh: NHS National Services Scotland/Scottish Public Health Observatory. [online] Available from: < www.scotpho.org.uk/home/Publications/scotphoreports/pub_obesityinscotland.asp>

[10] Scottish Budget Spending Review 2007, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2007. [online] Available from: < www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2007/11/13092240/0> See also: < www.scotlandperforms.com>

[11] Healthy Eating, Active Living: An action plan to improve diet, increase physical activity and tackle obesity (2008-2011), Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2008

[12] See: < www.keepwellscotland.com> and < www.healthscotland.com/Prevention-2010.aspx>

[13] Preventing Overweight and Obesity in Scotland: A Route Map towards Healthy Weight. 2010. Scottish Executive. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/02/17140721/0

[14] Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Management of obesity. A national clinical guideline. SIGN guideline no. 115. Edinburgh: SIGN, 2010.

[15] Health Analytical Services Scottish Government and Information and Statistics Division, NHS National Services Scotland. Indicators to Monitor Progress of the Obesity Route Map. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2011 < www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/346011/0115167.pdf>

[16] Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: Report of a WHO Expert Consultation., Geneva, 8-11 December 2008. 2011. Geneva: WHO.

[17] Prospective Studies Collaboration. Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900,000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. Lancet 2009: 373: 1083-96

[18] Huxley, R, S Mendis; E Zheleznyakov; S Reddy and J Chan. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular risk - a review of the literature. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010) 64 16-22

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[27] Pischon et al. 2008. General and Abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe. New England Journal of Medicine. 359:20.

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[36] Bromley, Catherine et al. 2010. The Scottish Health Survey 2009, Vol. 1: Main report. The Scottish Executive.

[37] For men, there is no clear consensus over what the cutoff should be. The latest WHO report recommends WHR >0.90; NICE recommend >1.00.

[38] Lissner, L, Björkelund C, Heitmann BL; Seidell JC, Bengtsson C. Larger hip circumference independently predicts health and longevity in a Swedish female cohort. Obesity Research 2001: 9: 644-6.

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[44] Janssen, Ian, Peter T. Katzmarzyk & Robert Ross. 2002. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Health Risk: Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines.

[45] This not specified in SIGN guideline ( no column for those with normal WC) but added in 2009 annual report

[46] This not in original SIGN guideline, but was added in 2009 annual report.

[47] Margaret Ashwell and Shiun Dong Hsieh. Six reasons why the waist-to-height ratio is a rapid and effective global indicator for health risks of obesity and how its use could simplify the international public health message on obesity. 2005, Vol. 56, No. 5 , Pages 303-307

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[50] Bromley, Catherine et al (eds), 2009. The Scottish Health Survey 2008. Volume 2, Technical report. Edinburgh:The Scottish Government.

[51] Bromley, Catherine et al (eds), 2010. The Scottish Health Survey 2009. Volume 2, Technical report. Edinburgh:The Scottish Government.

[52] Bromley, Catherine et al (eds), 2011. The Scottish Health Survey 2010. Volume 2, Technical report. Edinburgh:The Scottish Government.

[53] See appendix B for a complete explanation of this statistic.

[54] See appendix D for fuller explanation of method.

[55] Bromley, Catherine et al. 2005. The Scottish Health Survey 2003, Vol. 2: Adults. The Scottish Executive.

[56] Estimating Prevalence of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in a Population of African Americans with Diabetes Mellitus, 1999, James P. Boyle et al , American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 1

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[58] Scottish Public Health Observatory. Scottish Diabetes Survey 2009. NHS Scotland. Available here: http://www.diabetesinscotland.org.uk/Publications.aspx?catId=3

[59] Bromley, Catherine et al (eds), 2010. The Scottish Health Survey 2009. Volume 1, Final report. Edinburgh:The Scottish Government.

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[62] De Koning, L, Anwar T. Merchant, Janice Pogue, & Sonia S. Anand. 2007. Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular events: meta-regression analysis of prospective studies. European Heart Journal. 28, 850-856.

[63] Lee CM, Huxley RR, Wildman RP, Woodward M, 2008. Indices of abdominal obesity are better discriminators of cardiovascular risk factors than BMI: a meta-analysis. J Clin Epidemiol 61, 646-653

[64] Gabriela Vazquez, Sue Duval, David R. Jacobs, Jr, Karri Silventoinen. 2007. Comparison of Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Waist/Hip Ratio in Predicting Incident Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis. Epidemiologic Reviews. Vol. 29, 2007

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[66] From 2012 the waist circumference measurement will be taken by the interviewer. However, it will still only be measured on a sub-sample of respondents.

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