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Marine Scotland: Economic Assessment of Short Term Options for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Costs and Benefits to Other Marine Users and Interests

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3. Baseline

3.1 Introduction

A number of potential incompatibilities with socio-economic interests were identified from the SEA Environmental Report and draft OWE Plan, including:

  • Some types of commercial fishing activity (particularly trawling);
  • Shipping and Ports (including some ferry routes);
  • Aviation (civil and military radar, helicopter routes and de-icing areas);
  • Recreational interests (including sailing, power-boating, kayaking/canoeing, sea angling, surfing, windsurfing);
  • Tourism (including ecotourism); and
  • A range of potential social impacts (for example, social impacts on rural communities dependent on fishing and on established communities).

The SEA (Marine Scotland, 2010a) indicated that Practice and Exercise Areas ( PEXA) for the Navy may pose issues, although the MOD confirmed in their consultation response that there may be some scope to accommodate development in these areas, depending on case by case circumstances (Marine Scotland, 2010c). Further localised hazards were noted but these cannot be costed, are unlikely to be significant at the national or regional level and, therefore, have been excluded from the analysis.

Additional key sectors identified from the wider literature on the potential impacts of offshore wind farm development included:

  • Aquaculture;
  • Cables and pipelines; and
  • Wave & tidal energy.

Table 4 provides a full list of the socio-economic sectors included in the baseline and assessment.

Table 4. List of key sectors included in baseline

Sector

  • Commercial Fisheries;
  • Aquaculture;
  • Shipping and Ports;
  • Aviation;
  • Wave and Tidal Energy Development;
  • Cables and Pipelines;
  • Recreational Boating;
  • Recreational Angling;
  • Surfing, Windsurfing and Kayaking;
  • Tourism; and
  • Social Impacts.

For many of the sectors, it is not practical to develop a fully quantified baseline given the balance between the levels of uncertainty regarding future industry development and the relatively small impact it is likely to have on the results of the study. However, where it is deemed both possible and practical, including commercial fisheries, recreational angling and tourism, quantified baseline information is used in undertaking the assessment. The baseline information in this chapter consequently provides important contextual information in describing the nature and scale of activity at a regional level, both qualitatively and quantitatively where possible. A further definition of relevant baseline information, in the context of the scenario assessments, is reported in chapter 4 to allow greater transparency in demonstrating how the baseline information is used within such assessment.

3.2 Commercial Fisheries

Scotland is one of the largest sea fishing nations in Europe and the Scottish fleet is responsible for landing 66% of the total UK volume of fish (Scottish Sea Fisheries Statistics, 2009). In terms of the total value of landings by Scottish based vessels, the fishing sector contributed around £144 million GVA to the Scottish economy in 2009 (Scottish Government, 2010a).

The current industry can be divided into the pelagic (such as herring, mackerel and whiting), demersal (including cod, saithe, plaice, sole) and shellfish (predominantly nephrops, scallops, lobsters and crawfish) sectors. The pelagic sector made up 54% of the total volume of landings and 34% of the total value by Scottish based vessels in 2009, the demersal sector made up 27% of the total volume and 34% of the total value and the shellfish sector made up 18% of landings and 32% of value (Figure 1). Total revenues from first sale landings have been relatively static over the past five years, although tonnages have continued to decline over this period; reflecting the broader UK pattern ( UKMMAS, 2010).

Figure 1. Total landings by Scottish based vessels by species type, 2009

Figure 1. Total landings by Scottish based vessels by species type, 2009

(Source: Scottish Sea Fisheries Statistics, 2009)

Seven species make up the bulk of the landings: mackerel, herring, haddock, cod, monkfish, Nephrops and scallops. The relative values of individual fish species caught in Scotland's sea regions in 2009 are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Value of fish caught in Scotland's sea regions by species, 2009

Figure 2. Value of fish caught in Scotland's sea regions by species, 2009

(Source: Source: Scottish Government, 2011)

All fish landings are reported by the areas in which they were caught, known as ICES rectangles. This catch information, together with independent fish surveys, form the basis of the data used to assess the amount of fish that can be caught each year. Larger fishing vessels (15m and over) are fitted with a Vessel Monitoring System ( VMS), which allows for more detailed and precise information about the location of fishing activity, however, smaller vessels are currently unmonitored by VMS. Fishery statistics are produced using this VMS/non- VMS classification (i.e. vessel length of <15m and 15m and over). Although the location of other EU and non- EU boats are provided by this system, landings by these boats abroad are more difficult to source and are therefore outside the scope of this assessment. Figures 3 and 4 show the weight and volume of fish landed by species type and district.

Figure 3. Live weight (tonnes) landed by district (2009)

Figure 3. Live weight (tonnes) landed by district (2009)

(Source: Scottish Sea Fisheries Statistics, 2009)

Figure 4. Value landed by district (2009)

Figure 4. Value landed by district (2009)

(Source: Scottish Sea Fisheries Statistics, 2009)

The number of active fishing vessels based in Scotland was 2,174 vessels in 2009 (Scottish Sea Fisheries Statistics, 2009) (see Table 5). The largest part of the commercial fishing industry operates from ports located in the north east of Scotland, especially around Peterhead and Fraserburgh. The western coast supports numerous small ports and harbours, the largest of which are Ullapool, Oban, Portree and Mallaig (Figure A2). Elsewhere, in the south east and south west, numerous small ports support local industries based on smaller vessels (<10m).

Table 5. The number of active Scottish based vessels in 2009 by district and size

District

Number of Active Vessels in 2009

10 Metres and Under

>10 <15 Metres

15 Metres and Over

Eyemouth

100

73

16

11

Pittenweem

117

100

13

4

Aberdeen

96

81

8

7

Peterhead

100

46

-

52

Fraserburgh

220

102

11

107

Buckie

85

45

5

35

Scrabster

129

110

12

7

Total East Coast

847

557

65

225

Orkney

152

110

31

11

Shetland

182

134

14

34

Stornoway

258

203

30

25

Total Islands

592

447

75

70

Lochinver

14

11

1

2

Kinlochbervie

24

20

2

2

Ullapool

82

45

14

23

Mallaig

59

32

5

22

Oban

129

89

23

17

Campbeltown

135

83

33

19

Ayr

149

78

19

52

Portree

143

121

20

2

Total West Coast

735

479

117

139

Total

2,174

1,483

257

434

(Source: Scottish Sea Fisheries Statistics, 2009)

The Scottish fleet can be broadly split into vessels over and under 10m in length. The latter tend to operate mainly in inshore waters (up to 12nm from the coast) fishing for a mixture of quota and non-quota stocks and tend to focus mainly on shellfish (Scottish Government, 2011). As shown in Figure 5, the <10m inshore vessels form an important part of the Scottish fishing fleet along the east and west coasts of Scotland.

The >10m Scottish fleet tends to concentrate its activities in the northern North Sea, mainly in Scottish waters, but some vessels also fish in Norwegian waters, and waters to the west of Scotland.

Figure 5. % Catch by value for in each sea area, 2009

Figure 5. % Catch by value for in each sea area, 2009

(Source: Marine Scotland)

Figure 6 shows the total number of fishermen employed on Scottish based vessels from 2000 to 2009. Including regularly and irregularly employed and crofters, a total of 5,409 people were employed as fishermen in 2009. Employment in fishing accounts for 0.2% of the total Scottish labour force, however, in some regions this percentage is much higher, for example, in Aberdeenshire and Argyll & Bute 1.03% and 1.24%, respectively, of the labour force were fishermen in 2009, and in Eilean Siar, Orkney & Shetland the figure was 3.79% (Scottish Sea Fisheries Statistics, 2009).

Figure 6. Number of fishermen employed on Scottish based vessels (2000-2009)

Figure 6. Number of fishermen employed on Scottish based vessels (2000-2009)

(Source: Scottish Sea Fisheries Statistics, 2009)

Total revenues from first sale landings have not changed much over the past five years although tonnages have decreased. However, the trend has been for decreasing employment and numbers of vessels between 2000 and 2009 due to intense decommissioning. Most future scenarios generally predict that revenues will remain stable over the next 50 years, if not increase due to improved fisheries management (Viner et al, 2006; Saunders et al, 2011). The worst case scenario under a 'slash and burn' culture is for some stocks to collapse in 50 years time. For the purposes of this assessment we have made the simplifying assumption that revenues and associated jobs will remain stable.

3.2.1 North East Region

For the North East region, Nephrops have the greatest proportion of landings by value (average 2000 to 2009) and scallops and squid are also important species in the Moray Firth region. Figures 7 and 8 show the value of catches by species type for the Moray Firth and East Scotland Coast sea areas in Scotland's Sea Atlas which make up the North East region from the coast to the 12nm territorial limit. The Fladen sea area makes up the remainder of the region beyond this limit and the value of catches for these areas are shown in Figure 9.

Figure 7. Value of catches for Sea Area: Moray Firth (2005-2009)

Figure 7. Value of catches for Sea Area: Moray Firth (2005-2009)

(Source: Scottish Government, 2011)

Figure 8. Value of catches for Sea Area: East Scotland Coast (2005-2009)

Figure 8. Value of catches for Sea Area: East Scotland Coast (2005-2009)

(Source: Scottish Government, 2011)

Figure 9. Value of catches for Sea Area: Fladen (2005-2009)

Figure 9. Value of catches for Sea Area: Fladen (2005-2009)

(Source: Scottish Government, 2011)

Beatrice OWF site lies within ICES rectangle 45E7 where the total value of landings (average for 2000 to 2009) is £1,681,287 (Figure A20). Scallops comprise the largest catch by value (over 55% of the total value) with the next largest, Nephrops, comprising nearly 15%.

The top three fishing methods (by value) deployed in ICES rectangle 45E7 are boat dredges, otter trawls and Scottish seines (Figure A21). Over 90% of the total catch by value is caught by vessels which are 15m and over in length (Figure A22) and the total effort is 2,721 days per year (average for 2000 to 2009).

The highest y of vessels with VMS (average from 2005 to 2008) in this region occurs within the southern half of the Moray Firth and around the ports of Fraserburgh and Wick (Figure A23). The vast majority (over 99%) of all vessels sighted within the region are registered in the UK.

The Beatrice OWF site lies close to or within potential spawning grounds for cod, plaice, lemon sole and sandeels and nursery areas for herring, whiting, saithe and sandeels (Marine Scotland, 2010a).

3.2.2 East Region

For the western part of the East Region (coastal regions comprising the Forth and East Scotland Coast sea areas identified in Scottish Government, 2011), the majority of landings by value (average 2000 to 2009) are shellfish species where Nephrops, scallops and lobsters have the highest values (Figure 10). The remainder (offshore part) of the East region is covered by the Forties sea area and the value of catches by species type for this area is shown in Figure 11 .

In the East region, the majority of the total catch by value is caught by vessels 15m and over. However, inshore and within the Moray Firth around 55% of the total catch by value is caught by vessels under 15m and around 40% by vessels under 10m in length (Figure 5).

Figure 10. Value of catches for Sea Area: Forth (2005-2009)

Figure 10. Value of catches for Sea Area: Forth (2005-2009)

(Source: Scottish Government, 2011)

Figure 11. Value of catches for Sea Area: Forties (2005-2009)

Figure 11. Value of catches for Sea Area: Forties (2005-2009)

(Source: Scottish Government, 2011)

Inch Cape, Neart na Gaoithe and Forth Array OWF sites overlap with ICES rectangles 42E7, 41E7, 41E8 and 40E8 (Figure A26).

The total value of landings from rectangle 42E7 (average for 2000 to 2009) was £1,772,497. Scallops comprise the largest catch by value (around 40% of the total value), with the next largest, lobsters, comprising over 25%. The two main fishing methods (by value) deployed in ICES rectangle 42E7 are pots and boat dredges (Figure A27) and over 60% of the total catch value is caught by vessels which are less than 15m in length (over 40% by vessels under 10m) (Figure A28).

The total value of landings from rectangle 41E7 (average for 2000 to 2009) was £4,273,475. Nephrops comprise the largest catch by value (nearly 60%), with the next largest, lobsters, comprising over 20%. The top three fishing methods (by value) deployed are otter trawls, pots and Nephrops trawls (Figure A27). In ICES rectangle 41E7, over 80% of the total catch value is caught by vessels which are less than 15m in length (over 45% by vessels under 10m) (Figure A28).

The total value of landings from rectangle 41E8 (average for 2000 to 2009) was £343,000. In rectangle 41E8, scallops comprise the largest catch by value (over half of the total value), followed by haddock (over 15%) and Nephrops (over 10%). The main fishing method (by value) deployed in ICES rectangle 41E8 is boat dredging (over 55% of the total catch value), followed by pair trawls (bottom), otter trawls and Scottish seines (Figure A27). In rectangle 41E8, over 80% of the total catch by value is caught by vessels which are 15m and over in length (Figure A28).

The total value of landings from rectangle 40E8 (average for 2000 to 2009) was £1,392,413. In rectangle 40E8, lobsters comprise the largest catch by value (around 40% of the total value), followed by Nephrops (around 20%) and edible crab (around 15%). The main fishing method (by value) deployed in ICES rectangle 40E8 is pots (over 60% of the total catch value), followed by otter trawls, Nephrops trawls and midwater otter trawls (Figure A27). In rectangle 40E8, over 80% of the total catch by value is caught by vessels which are less than 15m (and over 60% are less than 10m)(Figure A28).

The highest density of vessels with VMS (average 2005 to 2008) in this region occurs off and along the coast and particularly east of Arbroath and Dundee (Figure A29). Neart na Gaoithe and Forth Array OWF sites lie in areas of relatively low VMS vessel density, whereas Inch Cape OWF site lies in the area of highest vessel density in this region. The vast majority (over 98%) of all vessels sighted within the region are registered in the UK (Figure A31). Within the area of the Inch Cape OWF site 52 vessels (scallop dredgers, potters/whelkers and demersal stern trawlers) were sighted during surveillance operations between 2000 and 2009, 5 vessels (potters/whelkers, scallop dredgers and a demersal stern trawler) were sighted within the Neart na Gaoithe OWF site and no vessels were sighted within the Forth Array OWF site (Figure A30).

Spawning grounds and nursery areas for Biodiversity Action Plan ( BAP) marine fish species are located within all three OWF sites in the East region, notably nursery areas for cod, whiting and saithe and also nursery areas for sandeel. Inch Cape OWF site also lies in a nursery area for plaice. Spawning grounds for plaice, whiting, and sandeel also lie within all three OWF sites, as well as mackerel spawning grounds at Inch Cape and Forth Array, and lemon sole spawning grounds at Neart na Gaoithe OWF site (Marine Scotland, 2010a).

3.2.3 South West Region

For the South West region as a whole, the majority of landings by value (average 2000 to 2009) are shellfish species: Nephrops, scallops and cockles have the highest values. Figure 12 shows the value of catches by species type for the Irish Sea area.

In the east of this region (near the Solway Firth coast) the over 70% of the total catch by value is caught by vessels under 15m, however further away from the Scottish coast the majority (over 85%) of the total catch is by vessels 15m and over.

Solway Firth OWF site lies within ICES rectangle 38E6. The total value of landings from rectangle 38E6 (average for 2000 to 2009) is £521,805 (Figure A32). Mussels, brown shrimps and cockles comprise just over half of this total value. The top three fishing methods (by catch value) deployed in ICES rectangle 38E6 are mechanized dredges, beam trawls and otter trawls (Figure A33). The majority (over 70%) of the total catch by value is caught by vessels that are less than 15m in length (Figure A34) and the total effort is 3,516 days per year (average for 2000 to 2009).

Wigtown Bay OWF site lies within ICES rectangle 38E5. The total value of landings from rectangle 38E5 (average for 2000 to 2009) is £1,238,454 (Figure A32). Scallops, whelks, lobsters and queen scallops comprise over three quarters of this total value. The major fishing methods (by catch value) deployed in ICES rectangle 38E5 are boat dredges and pots (Figure A33). Around one third of the total catch by value is caught by vessels that are less than 15m in length (Figure A34) and the total effort is 2,395 days per year (average for 2000 to 2009).

Figure 12. Value of catches for Sea Area: Irish Sea (2005-2009)

Figure 12. Value of catches for Sea Area: Irish Sea (2005-2009)

(Source: Scottish Government, 2011)

The highest density of vessels with VMS (average 2005 to 2008) in the South West region occurs towards the southern half offshore of Cumbria and around the Isle of Man (Figure A35). The majority (over 95%) of all fishing vessels sighted in the region between 2000 and 2009 are registered in the UK (Figure A37). Within the area of the Solway Firth OWF site 10 vessels (trawlers, a demersal stern trawler, a demersal side trawler and a potter/whelker) were sighted during surveillance operations between 2000 and 2009 and 2 vessels (trawlers) were sighted within the Wigtown Bay OWF site (Figure A36).

In the South West region, both OWF sites lie within nursery grounds for commercial fish species. There are also spawning grounds and nursery areas for UKBAP marine fish species in the footprint of the works, notably nursery areas for whiting, as well as herring and plaice nursery areas and cod, whiting and sole spawning grounds (Marine Scotland, 2010a).

3.2.4 West Region

For the West region as a whole, the majority of landings by value (average 2000 to 2009) are shellfish species: Nephrops, scallops, queen scallops, crabs and lobsters have the highest values. Figures 13 and 14 below show the value of catches by species type for the Scotland's Sea Atlas Clyde and Minches and Malin Sea areas which make up the West region up to the 12nm territorial limit.

Figure 13. Value of catches for Sea Area: Clyde (2005-2009)

Figure 13. Value of catches for Sea Area: Clyde (2005-2009)

(Source: Scottish Government, 2011)

In the east of this region (around the islands of the southern Inner Hebrides) over 50% of the total catch by value is caught by vessels under 15m, however further west (away from the Scottish coast) and to the south of this region the majority of the total catch is by vessels over 15m.

Figure 14. Value of catches for Sea Area: Minches and Malin Sea (2005-2009)

Figure 14. Value of catches for Sea Area: Minches and Malin Sea (2005-2009)

(Source: Scottish Government, 2011)

Kintyre OWF site lies within ICES rectangle 39E4. The total value of landings from rectangle 39E4 (average for 2000 to 2009) is £5,593,593 (Figure A38). Nephrops comprise the largest catch by value (over 65% of the total value) with the next largest, scallops, comprising just over 10%. The top three fishing methods (by catch value) deployed in ICES rectangle 39E4 are otter trawls, Nephrops trawls and boat dredges (Figure A39). The majority (around 75%) the total catch by value is caught by vessels that are 15m and over in length (Figure A40) and the total effort is 21,028 days per year (average for 2000 to 2009).

Islay OWF site lies within ICES rectangle 40E3. The total value of landings from rectangle 40E3 (average for 2000 to 2009) is £1,740,054 (Figure A38). Scallops, edible and velvet crabs and lobsters comprise over 90% of the total value. Over 90% of the fishing methods (by catch value) are pots and boat dredges (Figure A39) and over 60% of the total catch by value is by vessels that are less than 15m in length (Figure A40). The total effort for ICES rectangle 40E3 is 3,317 days per year (average for 2000 to 2009).

The majority of the Argyll Array OWF site lies within ICES rectangle 41E2, whilst the northern part of the site extends into 42E2 and the eastern part of the site extends into 41E3. The total value of landings from ICES rectangles 41E2, 42E2 and 41E3 (average for 2000 to 2009) are £659,370, £2,418,644 and £3,089,637 respectively (Figure A38). Nephrops, edible crabs, scallops and lobsters form the majority of these totals by value.

Around the Argyll Array OWF site the largest groups of fishing methods (by value) deployed are otter trawls, pots and Scottish seines (Figure A39). Over 80% of the total catch by value is by vessels that are 15m and over in length (Figure A40) and the total effort is 2,449 days per year (average for 2000 to 2009). The total effort for ICES rectangles 42E2 and 41E3 are 12,561 days per year and 6,538 days per year, respectively.

The highest density of vessels with VMS (average 2005 to 2008) in this region occurs within the Firth of Clyde around Arran, with pockets of high density occurring just to the west of Kintyre (affecting the Kintyre OWF site) and south-east of Tiree (Figure A41). The Islay and Argyll Array OWF sites lie in areas of low VMS vessel density. The vast majority (over 95%) of all vessels sighted within the region are registered in the UK (Figure A43). Within the area of the Kintyre OWF site 4 vessels (scallop dredgers, potter/whelker and a demersal stern trawler) were sighted during surveillance operations between 2000 and 2009, 4 vessels (potters/whelkers and a gill netter) were sighted within the Islay OWF site and 8 vessels (potters/whelkers and a demersal stern trawler) were sighted within the Argyll Array OWF site (Figure A42).

All of the OWF sites in the West region lie completely or partially within spawning areas including mackerel and plaice (both BAP species) and sandeels. All sites also lie completely or partially within nursery areas including cod, whiting and saithe (all BAP species) as well as sandeels (Marine Scotland, 2010a).

3.3 Aquaculture

Aquaculture is a growing industry and has a turnover worth around £427m per year to the Scottish economy at farm gate prices in 2009. Contributions to this turnover included Atlantic salmon (£412m), rainbow and brown trout (£6m), halibut (£0.5m), mussels (£7m) and other shellfish (£1.4m). Farmed salmon exports are valued at £285m annually. Exports from fish and aquaculture are Scotland's largest food export (Scottish Government, 2011). The EU Strategy for the Sustainable Development of European Aquaculture described aquaculture as the fastest growing food production sector globally (with an average worldwide growth rate of 6-8% per year). Within the UK as a whole the industry has been projected to increase from 2006 to 2016 by 116% (Wilding et al., 2006).

A case study on salmon farming for Argyll and Bute (West region) ( SSPO, 2010) indicated the following contributions and trends:

  • The direct employment provided by members of SSPO has risen from 321 in 2008 to 393 (data up to June 2010)
  • 72 new jobs were created in the last year;
  • The increase in direct employment represents a 22% rise on the previous year;
  • Nearly £4 million capital investment was made in Argyll & Bute in 2009;
  • Over the last four years SSPO member companies have made £26.5m capital investments in Argyll & Bute;
  • 23% of the total capital investments made in the whole of Scotland between 2006 and 2009 were made in Argyll & Bute;
  • Gross pay has increased year-on-year, rising from £3.7m in 2007 to £9.8m in 2009; and
  • 166% increase in value to communities through direct salaries over last three years.

This case study reflects trends throughout the industry to expand their business and increase staffing levels over the next five year ( SSPO, 2010)

Locations of aquaculture installations in Scottish waters are shown in Figure A3. These include both non-operational and operational / producing farms as at 2009, and indicate that there is no significant regional or national interaction between farms and the short term options. More recent data was not available.

The study did not look at this sector in further detail for reasons of proportionality as, in general, it is not expected that the aquaculture sector will be significantly impacted upon at either the national or regional level by the OWE Plan.

3.4 Shipping and Ports

This section summarizes commercial shipping and port activity. Maintenance of strategic access for military vessels is also identified, where appropriate. Navigational interests associated with commercial fishing and recreation are described in Sections 3.3 and 3.9 respectively.

In 2006 the trade value of Scottish freight amounted to £65bn equivalent to 17% UK's total trade (British Ports Association, 2008). The cruise liner sector has seen particular growth in recent years (British Ports Association, 2008). An annual average growth rate of 3-4% is expected in the container and Ro-Ro sectors (DfT, 2008) which is expected to benefit the whole spectrum of container ports, from major hub, through secondary hub, to short-sea and feeder ports (Tri Marine Research Group, 2004). However, trade was significantly affected by economic downturn and is only recovering slowly. In addition, the trend throughout the latter part of the 20th century through to the present has been one of increasing vessel capacity, e.g. over the last fifteen years or so the capacity of the largest container vessel in service has virtually doubled from around 4,500 teu (Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit) to 8,400 teu (Tri Marine Research Group, 2004).

Ports and shipping provide for the transport of freight and passengers that incorporates a mix of international movements and coastal shipping routes, including ferry services to the Scottish islands. Port movements are dominated in the east coast by the Forth Ports which, in tonnage terms, exceeds all the other east coast ports collectively. On the west coast, the Clyde ports volumetrically account for the most freight, although overall tonnage is approximately one third of the Forth Ports freight.

Cargo and passenger port traffic figures are published each year in Scottish Transport Statistics (Scottish Government, 2009) and Department for Transport (DfT) Maritime Statistics Compendium (DfT, 2010). In 2009, 85.5million tonnes of cargo was handled through all Scottish ports. This is a reduction of around 11% compared to 2008 and 21% compared to 2005 as a result of the general economic downturn. Approximately 98% of cargo was handled by the 16 major ports (96% by the top 11), with Firth of Forth ports accounting for 44%. Figure A4 identifies the location of the 16 major ports in Scotland.

Figures 15 to 18 show the breakdown of cargo tonnage in 2009 by main categories, tanker cargos, container ships, Roll on Roll off (Ro-Ros) and dry cargo, respectively.

Figure 15. Tanker arrivals Scottish East-West breakdown by deadweight tonnage ( DWT): 2009

Figure 15. Tanker arrivals Scottish East-West breakdown by deadweight tonnage (DWT): 2009

Figure 16. Container ship arrivals Scottish East-West breakdown by deadweight tonnage ( DWT): 2009

Figure 16. Container ship arrivals Scottish East-West breakdown by deadweight tonnage (DWT): 2009

Figure 17. Ro-Ro vessel arrivals Scottish East- West breakdown by deadweight tonnage ( DWT): 2009

Figure 17. Ro-Ro vessel arrivals Scottish East- West breakdown by deadweight tonnage (DWT): 2009

Figure 18. Dry cargo arrivals Scottish East-West breakdown by deadweight tonnage ( DWT): 2009

Figure 18. Dry cargo arrivals Scottish East-West breakdown by deadweight tonnage (DWT): 2009

Figures 15 to 18 indicate that East coast ports handle more cargo than the West coast with the exception of the Ro-Ro cargoes where the ferry services to Northern Ireland and the Western Isles account for most of the West coast traffic, particularly the services from Stranraer and Cairnryan. Figure 19 highlights the strategic importance of the Forth ports for tanker traffic and the Clyde for imports/exports on the West coast.

Figure 19. Type of cargo at main Scottish ports in 2009

Figure 19. Type of cargo at main Scottish ports in 2009

(Source: Scottish Government, 2011).

3.4.1 North East Region

The principal ports in the North East Region comprise Aberdeen, Peterhead and Cromarty Firth (Figure A5). Aberdeen is the major supply base for the North Sea oil industry and supports around 11,000 people, a large number of which will are oil-related (British Ports Association, 2008). Cromarty Firth is also an important O&M base for the North Sea Oil Industry and accommodates the Nigg Oil Terminal which handles a significant oil cargo throughput as well as general bulk agricultural and timber cargoes (Figure 19). Peterhead is the UK's largest fishing port and is also a major oil industry support base.

Northlink Ferries services between Aberdeen and Lerwick and Kirkwall carry 140,000 passengers each year. This gives considerable economic and social benefits to both the port and harbour operators as well as the surrounding area, allowing for the movement of commercial traffic, local passenger traffic and growing numbers of tourists and visitors (British Ports Association, 2008).

Waypoint shipping data suggests that traffic to/from Cromarty/Inverness tends to follow the southern coast of the Moray Firth. The main north west/south east shipping route passes 10km to the north east of Beatrice. There were 52 cruise calls into Cromarty Firth in 2008 with a total of 48,100 passengers. This contributed significantly to the tourism economy of the Highlands. Following a slight dip in 2009, there were 52 scheduled visits for 2010 and a forecast of 61,000 passengers.

From Rattray Head at the southern entrance to the Moray Firth, the greater proportion of traffic routes to or from the south, either come from the south west up the coast from the Forth or from the south east direct from the North Sea production areas (Figure A5).

3.4.2 East Region

The Forth Estuary collectively handles some 39 million tonnes of cargo annually and includes the ports of Grangemouth, Burntisland, Methil, Leith and Rosyth. Grangemouth is Scotland's largest container port, handling 9 million tonnes of cargos annually, of which, 2.5 million tonnes is dry cargo representing incoming raw materials for Scottish industry and outgoing finished product 4. The Port of Burntisland on the north side of the estuary is strategically placed to provide fast onward distribution of goods by road and rail and also provides support services to the North Sea oil industry. Wood pulp and timber account for most of the trade through Methil although other dry bulk goods including exports of stone and coal are handled through the port. Leith is the largest enclosed deepwater port in Scotland and has the capability to handle handymax (midrange bulk carrier) ships up to 50,000 DWT5.

To the north in the Tay Estuary are the ports of Dundee and Perth. The Port of Dundee specialises in forest products, but also provides support facilities to offshore oil & gas and a terminal for a range of general and bulk cargoes. Perth handles a range of cargos including those related to agricultural interests, such as animal feedstuffs and fertilisers, timber, chemicals and barite ore.

Montrose handles imports and exports of forest products and various bulk, semi bulk, break bulk cargoes and containers.

Since 2002, Rosyth has provided regular ferry connections with Zeebrugge in Belgium which provides an important entry point for European freight carriers into the UK (British Ports Association, 2008).

The majority of the shipping traffic in the vicinity is inbound to/outbound from the Forth estuary with few passing vessels. The south routed traffic dominates, followed by the north route with the least traffic approaching/leaving from the east (Figure A6) Ships arriving from the south and departing to the south outnumber those to and from the north by 3:1 (Chamber of Shipping, 2010).

3.4.3 South West Region

Ships from the ferry terminals at Stranraer, Cairnryan and Troon regularly sail to Belfast and Larne in Northern Ireland, providing an important freight and passenger link. These services are economically significant to Scotland and the rest of the UK (British Ports Association, 2008). In 2009 Cairnryan handled 602,000 passenger movements, 154,000 accompanied passenger cars and shipped 200,000 freight units (DfT, 2010).

The port of Silloth on the south side of the Solway Firth principally handles agribulk cargoes and in particular is the main import route for Prime Molasses - a major UK supplier of molasses to the animal-feed industry. The port handles approximately 100 ship visits per year/a mix of tankers for the molasses and dry bulk primarily importing fertilizer products. All visits to the port pick up a pilot a mile offshore from Workington and then follow the English coast up to the port (Chris Puxley, ABP Silloth, pers. comm. 7 Jan 2011).

The North Channel that passes between The Rhins and Mull of Gallway and Mull of Kintyre on the mainland and the coast of Northern Island provides a major conduit for Atlantic shipping and vessels travelling to and from UK west coast ports. High vessel densities (more than seven vessels per day) occur in parts of the North Channel, and the areas between Stranraer in Scotland and Larne and Belfast in Ireland. Most traffic passes to the west of the Isle of Man (Figure A7).

3.4.4 West Region

Clydeport handles approximately 13 million tonnes of freight per annum which is predominantly dry bulk and liquid bulk with small quantities of container traffic and general cargo (Figure 19). Glensanda port is dedicated to export granite from the adjacent quarry to destinations throughout northern Europe. Some 6million tonnes of granite are shipped annually placing Glensanda in the top 20 UK ports for export 6. Oban just to the north of the West region, while not a large port, provides vital ferry and freight services to the Inner and Outer Hebrides operated principally by Caledonian Macbrayne ferries.

In addition to the port traffic the West region has a great deal of shipping activity including through traffic using the Irish Sea and the North Channel that includes both the transatlantic traffic to /from west coast UK ports and the north bound traffic that passes either through the Minch or the deep water route to the west of Lewis and Harris that is favoured by tankers Figure A8). Dry cargo vessels appear to take less distinct routes than tankers and make port calls throughout the west coast. Typically they tend to transit through the Minches, rather than using the deep water route to the west of the Western Isles (Faber Maunsell & Metoc plc, 2007).

Campbeltown is a busy fishing port and an important area for ship building. The port also provides ferry services to Ballycastle in Northern Ireland and Troon in South Ayrshire, Scotland. The port has been flagged in the NRIP as an important area for investment and development, in providing manufacturing facilities and a base for operation and maintenance to support offshore wind developments. As a consequence of its inclusion as an NRIP location the Argyll and Bute Council with ERDF support and in partnership with HIE plans to invest significantly in improved harbour and related infrastructure (Robert Pollock, Argyll and Bute Council, pers. comm. 8 Feb 2011).

3.5 Aviation

Aviation interests encompass a range of activities and services that fall under both civil and military aviation. The baseline provides a brief overview of the interests and considers both the civil and military activity within each of the regions.

For an economy on the geographic margins of Europe, good air transport linkages are vital for growth (DfT, 2002). Aviation forms a critical component of Scotland's economy, contributing to its independence as a nation by providing direct access to markets as well as providing lifeline services to otherwise inaccessible settlements throughout the mountainous and island terrain. The Scottish Government also acknowledges that good air links support Scotland's economy, including the tourism industry, and aims to encourage the development of direct routes to Scotland to foster inward investment and tourism (York Aviation, 2010).

The importance of air travel to Scotland can be illustrated by what is termed the 'propensity to fly' which measures the number of return air trips in an area per head of population (but includes trips made by out-of-area tourists and business people). Figure 20 shows that, apart from London, Scotland records the highest figure in the UK.

Figure 20. Propensity to fly

Figure 20. Propensity to fly

(Source: DfT , 2002)

Demand at UK airports is forecast to grow strongly (DfT, 2009). Under a central case passenger numbers are projected to increase from 241 million passengers per annum (mppa) in 2007 to 465mppa in 2030 (within the range 415-500mppa). In 2007, passenger throughput at Scottish airports was 25mppa (Scottish Air Transport Statistics). Assuming a pro-rata growth for Scotland, passenger traffic is forecast to increase steadily to 46mppa in 2030 (in the range of 41 to 50mppa).

Coastal aviation activity, particularly military aviation is concentrated in the East and North East regions, (Figure A9) although UK radar interference problems nationally are of greatest concern in the Glasgow area (Paul Askew, CAA, pers. comm. 20 Dec 2010).

Aviation statistics are published in Scottish Transport Statistics No.29 December 2010 (Scottish Government, 2010b). Passenger and freight movements through Scotland's four principal civilian airports are shown in Figures 21 and 22 respectively. Figure 23 provides summary information on passenger movements at minor Scottish airports.

Employment at Glasgow and Edinburgh airports in 2003 was about 7,250 staff on a Full Time Equivalent ( FTE) basis. This is a small fraction of total employment in the central belt of Scotland, but with significance well beyond its absolute numbers. The Fraser of Allander Institute estimated that a further 15,000 jobs in the region are supported directly or indirectly by the two airports (The David Hume Institute, 2003).

Figure 21. Passenger movements through selected Scottish airports: 2009

Figure 21. Passenger movements through selected Scottish airports: 2009

Figure 22. Freight handled through selected Scottish airports: 2009

Figure 22. Freight handled through selected Scottish airports: 2009

(Source: Scottish Government, 2010b)

Figure 23. Passenger movements through minor Scottish airports: 2009

Figure 23. Passenger movements through minor Scottish airports: 2009

(Source: Scottish Government, 2010b)

The breakdown of revenue and expenditure for Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Glasgow airports is shown in Figure 24. It can be seen that these airports currently operate at a profit.

Figure 24. Income and expenditure breakdown for major airports: 2009

Figure 24. Income and expenditure breakdown for major airports: 2009

(Source: Scottish Government, 2010b)

3.5.1 North East Region

3.5.1.1 Civilian

The principal civilian airports are Inverness and Aberdeen; both airports offer a range of domestic services and international flights to a limited range of European destinations. In terms of passenger throughput, Aberdeen is Scotland's third largest airport, handling 3 million passengers per annum of which 1.7 million are on domestic flights (Figure 21). The Airport also provides links to a range of destinations (e.g. Bergen and Stavanger) owing to the City's position as a centre for the oil and gas industry. The airport is also the world's busiest commercial heliport: around 16% of passenger throughput in 2009 was carried on helicopter flights, which made up around 37% of air transport movements at the Airport (York Aviation, 2010). Passenger traffic at Aberdeen has grown by 13.3% over the past five years and its market share has increased from 11.7% to 13.3% (York Aviation, 2010). The airport has an exceptionally high proportion of business travellers (56%). For comparison, business passengers account for only around 30% of traffic at Edinburgh and Glasgow (York Aviation, 2010).

Aberdeen airport is a major generator of GVA and supports a significant number of jobs both in Aberdeen City and Shire and across Scotland. In 2009, the airport is estimated to support 2,050 full time equivalent ( FTE) directly on-site, a further 320 FTE through direct off-site effects and a further 1,020 FTE in the City and Shire and 1,500 FTE across Scotland through indirect and induced impacts. In total, the airport contributes around £114 million of GVA in Aberdeen City and Shire and £126 million across Scotland. As an example, expenditure associated with visitors using Aberdeen in 2009 was around £51 million (York Aviation, 2010).

Wick civil airport lies to the north of North-East Region. Wick operates scheduled air services to Aberdeen, 3 times daily and to Edinburgh once a day. In addition, the North Sea Helicopter Advisory Route W4D (Aberdeen to Wick) also routes directly over the Moray Firth ( ERM, 2010). The Beatrice Offshore Oil Platforms and the 6nm helicopter safeguarding zone around these platforms overlaps with part of the short term option area.

3.5.1.2 Military

The Moray Firth exercise areas that are used by the RAF as low flying practice areas, firing and bombing ranges encompass the area occupied by the short term option.

RAF Kinloss that was home to the military reconnaissance Nimrod aircraft from the 1970s until 2010 is now due to close on 13 March 2011 following the Government's decision to cancel the Nimrod MRA4 programme 7. The future for nearby RAF Lossiemouth also remains uncertain, although Air Chiefs have recommended retention of RAF Lossiemouth, if necessary at the expense of RAF Leuchars. Under this scenario, RAF Lossiemouth would remain as Scotland's only lasting operational RAF air base where the Typhoon fighter aircraft would be based 8. RAF Tain is located just to the north of the head of the Moray Firth just to the west of Tarbat Ness. It is in routine use for practice weapons training by aircraft from RAF Lossiemouth to the south east.

3.5.2 East Region

3.5.2.1 Civilian

Edinburgh airport is Scotland's busiest airport, handling 9 million passengers p.a., broadly similar to the combined throughput of Glasgow and Aberdeen. Of this figure, 4.9million are domestic passengers travelling to/from other UK destinations including the Scottish Islands. An extensive network of European flights operates from Edinburgh and additionally a small number of services to the Eastern seaboard of America. In 2005, the airport was estimated to contribute £300million to the Scottish economy ( BAA Edinburgh, 2005). Development plans published in autumn 2009, suggest the airport has the potential to boost Scotland's economy by £867 million per year by 2030. The plans incorporate provision for a second parallel runway and extension of the terminal to accommodate an initial increase of passengers to a capacity of 13million passengers by 2013.

There are no existing promulgated helicopter routes local to the Forth where the short term options are concentrated (Marine Scotland, 2010c)

3.5.2.2 Military

RAF Leuchars is currently a Forward Operating Base for the new fleet of Typhoons and as such will become a training facility for low flying aircraft. There are unconfirmed reports that the air base could close in favour of retaining RAF Lossiemouth (see above).

3.5.3 South West Region

3.5.3.1 Civilian

There are no major airports in the south west region. The short term options lie over 80km from Douglas Airport and Prestwick. Aviation traffic is essentially through traffic and there is likely to be little interaction between aviation traffic and short term options, with the possible exception of any effects upon en route radar tracking.

3.5.3.2 Military

Military interests in the south west region include:

  • An Air Traffic Radar facility at West Freugh former RAF station;
  • Luce Bay Gunnery and Bombing Range (currently protected by Bylaw but under review);
  • Kirkcudbright; Training Area on the north coast of the Solway Firth providing field fire and dry training exercise; and
  • Portpatrick port.

Of these, only the first two are of direct relevance to the short term wind farm developments in the south west and the former has been identified as a potential concern in relation to potential short term options.

3.5.4 West Region

3.5.4.1 Civilian

The principal civilian airport on the west coast is Glasgow International that operates an extensive range of domestic flights as well as international flights to a wide range of European destinations with some long haul flights, in particular to the American eastern seaboard and Caribbean. The airport handled 7.2 million passengers in 2009 of which 3.8million were domestic.

A study by the Fraser of Allander Institute found that in 2002, Glasgow Airport supported 15,700 jobs across Scotland, with more than 5,000 people directly employed at the airport. The report also found that the airport's contribution to the Scottish economy is more than £700million p.a. ( BAA Glasgow, 2006). The Glasgow Airport Master Plan provides for forecast increases in numbers of passengers from 8.8 million p.a. in 2006 to 13 million p.a. by 2015 with £290million of investment over 10 years. Direct airport employment is forecast to increase to 8,200 by 2015, and to 12,100 by 2030, attracting further inward investment into the region ( BAA, 2006).

Prestwick airport international traffic is limited to European destinations. The airport handles a significant volume of airfreight, 13,000 tonnes p.a. although this has reduced significantly from a 2003 peak of 40,000 tonnes. The throughput of passengers at Prestwick is nearly 2.3 million p.a., most of which are on domestic flights (Figure 21).

An assessment of economic impact of Glasgow Prestwick Airport based upon previous passenger surveys the report estimates that around 580,000 visitors who travelled to Scotland through Glasgow Prestwick Airport in 2006/07 spent approximately £173 million. The figure includes an allowance for the multiplier or knock-on effects through the rest of the economy. This is equivalent to 4% of the total tourism expenditure in Scotland (£4.1 billion). In Ayrshire expenditure by passengers using Glasgow Prestwick Airport (visitors and outbound Scottish residents) is around £40 million, equivalent to a fifth of the total expenditure made by overnight tourists in Ayrshire and Arran (£204 million) ( SQW, 2008).

In addition, there are smaller airports at Tiree, Islay, Campbeltown, Oban, Coll, Colonsay, all with scheduled flights.

The Highlands and Islands Airports Ltd. ( HIAL) Campbeltown airport offers a twice daily scheduled service to Glasgow airport. The airport handles around 9000 passengers per annum. (Anne Phillips, HIAL, pers. comm. 10 Jan. 2011).

3.5.4.2 Military

HMS Gannet is located at the north side of Glasgow Prestwick Airport and operates 3 Sea King helicopters in a Search and Rescue capacity. There are no other military air bases on the west coast.

3.6 Wave and Tidal Energy Development

The UK is currently leading the world in the wave and tidal energy industry, with the world's first commercial scale wave device, established testing facilities and awarded project development leases (Renewable UK, 2010).

The European Marine Energy Centre ( EMEC) testing facilities for both wave and tidal devices are present on the coast of Orkney within the OWE Plan North Region. In 2010, The Crown Estate awarded 11 lease agreements to marine energy developers in the Pentland Firth & Orkney waters. Eleven agreements were signed for 6 wave and 5 tidal projects with a potential to generate 1.6 GW of marine energy. Marine Scotland also published Regional Locational Guidance (Harrald et al, 2010) under The Saltire Prize Programme, which identified the 5 least sensitive areas for wave and tidal developments. Two wave interest areas are present within the North region, one wave interest area is in the North West region and two areas of tidal interest are within the West Region. The Crown Estate announced a Further Scottish Leasing Round for wave and tidal energy generation in September 2010 using the Regional Locational Guidance as a guide for developers in submitting lease applications. This Further Scottish Leasing Round also invited applications for the rest of Scottish territorial waters and did not include the existing Pentland Firth & Orkney Waters Strategic Leasing Area.

3.6.1 Wave Energy Resources

There is a large potential wave energy resource within Scottish waters ( ABPmer, 2008). In particular, the North West and North OWE Plan Regions all have large wave energy resources. The proposed interest areas for wave energy in relation to the Saltire Prize are shown in Figure A10.

The world's first commercial size wave energy device, Limpet (Land Installed Marine Powered Energy Transformer), was installed near Portnahaven on the coastline of Islay in 2000. Limpet is a shoreline device which uses the principle of an oscillating water column. The outputs from the Limpet device are supplied to the local community but are limited by grid infrastructure at 150kW. Although this maximum output has been reached on occasion, the annual average performance is around 20kW (Wavegen, 2002).

Due to the economic viability of converting wave energy resources, there are no currently proposed wave developments within the West Region. Wave resources in South West, North East and East Region are lower compared to the West and North coasts and development in these areas is unlikely to be viable in the short and medium term.

3.6.2 Tidal Stream Energy Resources

Scottish territorial waters provide some of the best and most extensive tidal stream resources in the world. As with wave energy, most of the resource is located in North and West Scotland with few if any commercially exploitable resources elsewhere. The two areas of tidal future interest (Southwest of Islay and Mull of Kintyre) are located within the West Region (Figure A10). Southwest of Islay covers 646km 2 off the coast of the Rinns of Islay and the Oa peninsular, where high offshore tidal velocities and large spring tides exist generating an estimated annual mean resource of up to 5.9kW/m.

ScottishPower Renewables is proposing to develop a Demonstration Tidal Site in the Sound of Islay with the intention of deploying ten pre-commercial submerged tidal stream-generating devices by 2012. The proposed site would have an output capacity of up to 10 MW of renewable power for export to the grid (ScottishPower Renewables, 2010). Mull of Kintyre covers 141km 2 southwest of the Kintyre peninsular, the site experiences a maximum mean tidal flow of between 3m/s (spring) and 1.5m/s (neap). The site is estimated to have an annual mean tidal resource of up to 3.1kW/m (Harrald et al, 2010). Both of these sites have the potential to interact with offshore wind development in West Region.

The current energy generation capacity outputs from wave and tidal technologies are less than 1% of the whole Scottish renewable energy market outputs, whereas wind (on and offshore) supplies more than 50% of the outputs (Table 6).

Table 6. Scottish renewable energy generation capacity (17 December 2010)

Sector

Output ( MW)

Wind (on and offshore)

2,550.06

Hydro

1,395.06

Energy from Waste

99.68

Biomass Electricity

88.09

Biomass Heat

206.29

Wave

1.6

Tidal

1.25

Total

4342.03

(Source: Scottish Renewables website)

It is estimated that Scotland has the potential to deliver about 33 GW of energy from wave and tidal resources 9 (Scottish Renewables Website) However both technologies are in the early stages of development and currently large scale developments face a number of challenges if they are to reach the stage at which projects can be commercially viable (Renewable UK, 2010). Although it remains possible that there will be future spatial conflict between OWE development and other marine renewables, it remains premature to assess the extent of such conflict. It is recommended that these interactions, along with the potential for cumulative effects from offshore wind and wave and tidal technologies on other marine users, continue to be monitored and assessed in the future.

3.7 Cables and Pipelines

The seabed provides important physical space for telecom cables as part of national and international data transfer networks. Similarly a number of power cables cross the sea bed to provide electricity to island communities or offshore oil platforms. Offshore wind farm development will also lead to a proliferation of power cables on the seabed. A number of pipelines also serve the offshore oil & gas industry.

Figure A11 illustrates the distribution of cables and pipelines throughout the Plan area in relation to the short term options. Cables include HVDC power cables and telecommunication cables. The majority of pipelines are situated in the North East Region off Aberdeen where they service the offshore oil industry. A pipeline runs to the Beatrice oil field just southwest of the proposed Beatrice offshore wind farm.

There are two gas pipelines in the south-west that connect the Republic of Ireland and the Isle of Man to sources in Scotland. Both pipelines are owned by Bord Gáis Éireann (English: Irish Gas Board). Interconnector 1 and 2 run from Moffat and Beattock in central Dumfries and Galloway, through the Wigtown Bay area on the coast and on respectively to Loughshinny, North County Dublin and Gormanstown, County Meath in the Republic of Ireland. A spur off Interconnector 2 provides a link to the Isle of Man.

Further north, Northern Ireland is connected to the national natural gas supply by the 'East-West' interconnector, otherwise known as the Scotland to Northern Ireland Pipeline, which crosses the Irish Sea from the Rhinns of Galloway in Scotland to Island Magee. These pipelines are vital links for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Isle of Man.

Future developments in telecom cables are likely to focus on upgrading and increasing the capacity of existing cables along the same routes at present. The future of power cable development is more uncertain but most developments are likely to be related to increased cables for renewable energy developments.

3.8 Recreational Boating

For the purpose of this study, recreational boating has been considered to include sailing, powerboating and motorboat/cruising. Where any other boating activity has been included, this is highlighted within the report.

The Scottish Coast, and particularly the West coast, is identified as being one of the World's premier destinations for sailing. Recreational boating and marine and sailing tourism contribute about £300 million to the Scottish economy 10. Overall, the sector is expected to grow in the long term ( UKMMAS, 2010).

The UK Atlas of Recreational Boating ( RYA, 2005) and data from the Royal Yachting Association ( RYA) indicates that, within the current study area, sailing is concentrated around the Moray Firth, Solway Firth and the Firths of Clyde, Tay and Forth, with lesser sailing activity elsewhere (cited in Marine Scotland, 2010a). The main cruising routes and areas of greatest sailing and racing use are described in further detail for each region below 11. The RYA's Position Statement on offshore energy developments ( RYA, 2009), which encompasses the whole of the UK, notes that most of the general day sailing and racing areas are close to the shore.

Indicative estimates of the number of people participating in sailing and power/motor boating activities in Scotland can be taken from the British Marine Federation ( BMF) Watersports and Leisure Participation Survey 2009 ( BMF, 2009). This report estimated that in 2009, 57,047 people participated in sailboat activities and/or yacht cruising, 12,486 participated in sailboat and/or yacht racing and that 49,015 engaged in motor boating/ cruising or canal boating in the Border and Scotland ITV regions 12.

In Scotland, the BMF estimates that in 2009/10 the total turnover of the leisure, super yacht and small commercial marine industry (which includes a wide range of waterborne recreational pursuits as well as boat building, specialised equipment manufacture, sales, training, insurance services and finance) was £92.7million ( BMF, 2010). Of this, the 'value added contribution' which is the principal measure of national economic benefit was £29.2million. The industry in Scotland supported around 1,579 FTE jobs. It should be noted that a proportion of this revenue comes from inland activities. UKMMAS (2010) estimated that 62% of the total value in 2006/07 related to the marine environment. Using the same proportion, the total value related to the marine environment in 2009/10 was £57.5million.

An assessment of the current economic impact of sailing in Scotland was undertaken by Scottish Enterprise & Tourism Resources Company (2010) and a summary is shown below in Table 7. The study indicated that there is a total berthing/mooring capacity available across Scotland for 12,500 vessels. The study stated that the value of the market could increase from its current value of £101 million to £145 million after 10 years. The same report also provided a breakdown of the economic value of sailing and the number of berths in different regions of Scotland and these results are described in each of the relevant regional sections below.

Table 7. Economic impact of sailing in Scotland

Activity

Total Activity
(by Scottish and Non-Scottish Boat Owners)

Tourist Activity
(by Non-Scottish Boat Owners Only)

Expenditure

£101.3million

£27.0 million

Employment ( FTEs)

2,732

724

GVA

£53.0million

£14.0million

(Source: Scottish Enterprise & Tourism Resources Company, 2010)

A survey undertaken by Land Use Consultants (2006) to estimate expenditure on specialist marine and coastal activities in Scotland showed that the average amount individuals spent per annum on sailing was £924 (73 respondents, total expenditure of all respondents £67,482) and on speed boating was £558 per annum (17 respondents, total expenditure of all respondents £9,485).

3.8.1 North East and East Regions

Sailing activity in the East Region is shown in Figure A12. Sailing and racing areas occur in the Firth of Tay and Firth of Forth and along the southern section of coastline in this region. Recreational use is centred on the Firth of Forth, Firth of Tay and St Andrew's Bay (Marine Scotland, 2010a), with moderate use cruising routes extending up and down the coastline from these areas. Recreational boating on the East Coast of Scotland is increasingly making a contribution to local economies where former fishing harbours are being turned into marinas (Graham Russell, RYA Scotland, pers. comm. 18 Jan 2011).

Sailing activity in the North East Region is shown in Figure A13. Recreational use here is centred on the inner Moray Firth which is an important area for recreational sailing ( ERM, 2010). Figure A13 shows that moderate use cruising routes connect the sailing areas in the Moray Firth with marinas in the northern part of this region. One moderate usage and one light usage cruising route pass through the short term option area whilst another medium usage cruising route passes close to the south west corner of the area.

An indicative estimate of the economic impact of sailing in these two regions is provided by the Scottish Enterprise & Tourism Resources Company (2010) and shown in Table 8 below.

Table 8. Sailing area values and berth numbers

Sailing Tourism Study Region

Scottish Sea Areas Included

Relevant OWE Plan Region*

Value
(£million)

Number
of Pontoons

Number
of Moorings

North (Gairloch-Helmsdale-Peterhead, Orkney & Shetland)

North Scotland Coast
West Shetland
East Shetland
Moray Firth

Part of North East Helmsdale-Peterhead)

10.1

1,792

224

East (Peterhead-Fife Ness-Berwick)

East Scotland Coast
Forth

Part of East and North-East

7.9

1067

480

(Source: Scottish Enterprise & Tourism Resources Company 2010, summarised in Scottish Government, 2011)

3.8.2 West and South West Regions

The West of Scotland is an internationally important yachting destination ( RYA Scotland consultation response). Scottish Government (2011) describes the distribution of sailing as being concentrated in the 'Clyde region' (comprising the Clyde Estuary and Solway) and along the west coast (comprising parts of the West and North West OWE Plan Regions) where the RYA Atlas of recreational boating indicates there are heavy recreational cruising routes 13 and several 200+ berth marinas.

Sailing activity in the West Region is shown in Figure A14. The figure highlights that recreational use is most concentrated near the west coast within the sounds of the Inner Hebrides. Heavy recreational use is made of the Sound of Mull, the Firth of Lorne, the north of the Sound of Jura and the Crinan Canal. Heavy use is also made of cruising routes in the Sound of Luing, Seil Sound, Shuna Sound and Loch Melfort and of a route from the Crinan Canal, south through Loch Fyne and the Firth of Clyde via the Kyles of Bute and south of the Isle of Bute. Heavy usage cruising routes also exist between Arran and the mainland (Marine Scotland, 2010a). Light and medium usage cruising routes connect these heavy routes with the Inner and Outer Hebrides (note the latter falls within the North West OWE Plan Region).

Light usage cruising routes are present off Tiree and a 'light' route from the Firth of Lorne to the coast of Tiree north of Hynish (Figure A14). Another 'light' route exists from near Kintra on Mull through the Sound of Gunna (Scottish Power Renewables, 2010). A light usage route passes off of Islay and medium usage routes off the Kintyre coast and around the Mull of Kintyre. It should be noted that the RYAUK Recreational Boating Atlas highlights the fact that many lightly used routes are the only routes available and therefore have considerable local importance

Sailing activity in the South West Region is shown in Figure A15. The figure highlights that sailing areas occur along virtually the whole of the coastline in this region. There are a large number of medium usage routes within the Solway Firth and the North Channel and several routes intersect short term development option areas.

Marine-related leisure and recreation make a particular contribution to the Scottish rural economy on the west coast and the Hebrides. An indicative estimate of the economic impact of sailing in these two regions is provided by the Scottish Enterprise & Tourism Resources Company (2010) and shown in Table 9 below. It must be noted that these values are only indicative as the sailing tourism study regions reported, which are considered to reflect the geography of the main 'sub-national' sailing economies in Scotland, do not align with the OWE Plan regions and tend to span various parts of several of the OWE Plan Regions.

Table 9. Sailing area values and berth numbers for Clyde and the West

Sailing Tourism Study Region

Scottish Sea Areas Included

Relevant OWE Plan Region*

Value
(£million)

Number
of Pontoons

Number
of Moorings

Clyde (Clyde Estuary & Solway)

Clyde
Irish Sea

Mainly South-West but part of West region

44

3333

2038

West (Argyll, Ardnamurchan-Gairloch & Outer Hebrides)

Minches & Malin sea
Hebrides

Part of West and North West regions

39

1030

2637

* OWE Plan regions partially or fully included in the sailing tourism study region.
(Source: Scottish Enterprise & Tourism Resources Company 2010, summarised in Scottish Government, 2011)

The geographic profiling clearly indicates the clustering and concentration of facilities on the Clyde and on the West Coast when compared to the North and East coasts.

3.9 Recreational Angling

Sea angling is carried out along most of the Scottish coastline mostly within 6nm (The Scottish Sea Angling Conservation Network ( SSACN) 14.

Radford et al (2009) estimated that 125,188 adults and 23,445 children went sea angling in Scotland in 2008 with a total expenditure of £141 million. Sea angling in Scotland supported 3148 FTE jobs in 2008, representing an income of £69.67million 15 (Radford et al., 2009). The same study estimated that if sea angling ceased to exist, 1675 FTEs with an income of £37 million would be lost (cited in UKMMAS, 2010). A review of the economic valuation of sea angling (Defra, 2004) suggested there was a stable or increasing demand for sea angling with increasing use of charter and private boats. Radford and Riddington (2004) estimated the economic contribution of Scotland's salmon and sea trout game angling to be £85.6m. A survey undertaken by Land Use Consultants (2006) to estimate expenditure on specialist marine and coastal activities in Scotland showed that the average amount individuals spent on sea angling was £1,375 per annum (96 respondents, total expenditure of all respondents £131,960) and on shore angling was £861 per annum (82 respondents, total expenditure of all respondents £70,575).

Figure A16 shows the levels of sea angler participation levels within each of the four OWE Plan regions, highlighting that sea angling activity is highest in the West and East OWE Plan regions.

There is little information on the future of the industry, however, if we assume that commercial fisheries are improved under Common Fisheries Policy measures and that water quality will improve under measures implemented under the Water Framework Directive and those likely to implemented under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, then recreational angling is likely to improve as well. Forecasts for general tourism also indicate an improvement due to increased temperatures, although climate change may have unforeseen consequences for fish stocks.

3.9.1 North East and East Regions

Radford et al (2009) estimated the sea angling activity and economic value in eight regions of Scotland. Two of these regions, Edinburgh and East and North East Scotland fall within the OWE Plan East and North East Regions. As the areas in Radford et al (2009) do not align with the OWE Plan regions the values should only be taken as indicative values for comparison between areas.

Along the East Coast, sea angling charter vessels operate out of Arbroath and to a lesser extent Stonehaven, although shore angling here is relatively more popular than sea angling (Radford et al, 2009).

The total estimated regional sea angling activity and expenditure within these two regions is shown in Table 10 below.

Table 10. Estimated regional sea angling activity and expenditure

Region

No. Resident Sea Anglers

Annual Sea Angler Days
Spent in Region

% of Total Activity
Undertaken on the Shore

Total Annual Sea
Angler Expenditure (£M)

% of Expenditure Spent
on Shore Angling

Number of
Jobs Supported

Edinburgh, Fife & South East

20455

250868

50%

26.9

51%

504

North East Scotland

8904

234307

55%

15.5

57%

343

(Source: Radford et al, 2009)

As can be seen, Edinburgh, Fife and the South East Region had the greatest total expenditure on sea angling (approx £26.9 million) compared to other regions.

3.9.2 South West Region

The SSACN's Offshore Wind SEA consultation response stated that the Solway Firth in the south-west is used extensively for sea angling, particularly charter fishing. The Dumfries and Galloway region, particularly Luce Bay and the Mull of Galloway, have relatively sheltered waters, good shore access and a variety and reasonable abundance of sea fish. It therefore supports shore, own boat and chartered sea angling.

The majority of the people undertaking sea angling in this region (79%) are visitors from the rest of the UK (Radford et al 2009), who provide an important source of income for the local economy. SSACN estimate that sea angling is worth about £25million per year to the Solway area (Steve Bastiman, SSACN, pers. comm. 11 Jan 2011).

With respect to specialist and competition anglers, Scotland offers the prospect of catching tope in Luce Bay. Tope are worth about £10 million per year to several communities in Dumfries and Galloway ( UKMMAS, 2010). An annual shark 'tagging' event held over one weekend in mid June in this region was attended by about 220 sea anglers in 2010. A survey requesting information on the expenditure of the participants showed that this event attracted between £40-£50,000 into the local economy via expenditure on bait, food, drink, boat hire etc (Steve Bastiman, SSACN, pers. comm. 11 Jan 2011)

The total estimated sea angling activity, expenditure, number of jobs supported and associated income from sea angling in the Dumfries and Galloway regions (geographically defined as the Local Authority area of the same name; which falls within the OWE Plan South West region) was as follows:

  • Number of resident sea anglers = 3,224;
  • Annual sea angler days spent in region = 233,080;
  • 49% of the total sea angling activity was shore angling, while boat and charter activity comprised 32% and 19% of the total respectively;
  • Total annual sea angler expenditure = £25.3million;
  • 47% of the total expenditure was spent on shore angling; and
  • Jobs supported = 534.

3.9.3 West Region

The SSACN's Offshore Wind SEA consultation response stated that Loch Etive and Sunart and Clyde are regions that are used extensively for sea angling. Although the Firth of Clyde has relatively poor fish stocks and is not capable of supporting regular sea angling charter activity, the local population size means there are reasonable numbers of local shore anglers who rely heavily on seasonal fish stocks such as mackerel. Own boat and charter boat angling is popular at other locations on the West Coast where there are a number of excellent sheltered lochs enabling safe comfortable fishing (Radford et al, 2009). The Firth of Lorne and the Sound of Mull have become the centre for common skate angling contributing over £15 million per year to the local economy. Lochs Sunart and Etive attract vast numbers of shore and boat anglers seeking spurdog, and this fishery is estimated to be worth £15 million per year ( UKMMAS, 2010). The SSACN hold two shark/ray/skate tagging events per year in this region and estimate that the event held in November 2010 attracted £28,000 into the local economy from sea anglers (Steve Bastiman, SSACN, pers. comm. 11 Jan 2011).

Radford et al (2009) estimated the sea angling activity and economic value in eight regions of Scotland. Two of these regions, Argyll and Lochaber and Glasgow and West, fall roughly within the OWE Plan West region, but also incorporates the southern part of the OWE Plan North West Region, hence the values may result in a slight overestimate of economic contribution.

The total estimated regional sea angling activity and expenditure within these two regions is shown in Table 11. Compared to other regions in the Radford et al (2009) study, Glasgow and the West had the greatest number of adult resident sea anglers (23,548) and the greatest number of angler days (269,783).

Table 11. Estimated regional sea angling activity and expenditure

Region

No. Resident Sea Anglers

Annual Sea Angler Days
Spent in Region

% of total Activity
Undertaken on the Shore

Total Annual Sea Angler
Expenditure (£M)

% of total Expenditure Spent
on Shore Angling

Number of
Jobs Supported

Argyll and Lochaber

5825

252615

47%

22.6

40%

524

Glasgow and west

23548

269783

38%

24.1

36%

523

(Source: Radford et al, 2009)

3.10 Surfing, Windsurfing and Kayaking

Indicative estimates of the number of people participating in surfboarding and windsurfing in Scotland can be taken from the BMF Watersports and Leisure Participation Survey 2009 ( BMF, 2009). This report estimated that 52,869 adults (> 16 years) participated in surfing, 23,952 adults participated in windsurfing and 37,416 participated in canoeing in the Border and Scotland ITV regions 16.

Separately, Surfers Against Sewage ( SAS; 2010) conducted an initial study into the number of recreational water users in Scotland in 2010 and estimated that there were approximately 300,000 recreational water users (which includes surfers, windsurfers, kayakers, and kite surfers amongst a range of other activities) using the coastal waters of Scotland.

There is limited data concerning the expenditure of surfing-related tourism in the UK ( SAS, 2009) and currently no specific economic data on the value of surfing, windsurfing or kayaking to the Scottish economy (within the current study area) has been sourced. At a UK level the economic value of the surf industry was estimated at £200 million in 2007 ( UKMMAS 2010). The total number of people participating in surfing in the UK in 2009 was estimated to be 645,827 ( BMF, 2009). If it is assumed that the Scottish value is pro rata to the estimated number of individuals engaging in surfing activity in Scotland, this would give a Scottish value of around £16.4m p.a.

The majority of surfing competitions held in Scottish waters are based at Thurso East in the North region. This surf spot is considered Scotland's prime surfing location and holds the O'Neill Cold Water Classic annually and has also held the Association of Surfing Professionals ( ASP), World Qualifying Series ( WQS) in 2006. The other major location in Scotland for surf competitions is at Fraserburgh, the details of which are discussed further in the North East section. No information was sourced relating to the economic value of these events, but for comparison, the 2001 Newquay Board Masters Tournament was estimated to be worth £17 million to the local economy (Arup, 2001). The UK's main windsurfing competition is held annually at Tiree (the Tiree International Wave Classic) which is discussed further in the West section.

3.10.1 North East Region

Surfing is popular on the south side of the Moray Firth but is rarely undertaken around the vicinity of the Beatrice array in beaches along the northern Moray Firth ( SAS, 2010). Figure A17 shows the surf beach locations in this region identified in Scottish Government (2011) although it should be noted that the locations along the north coast of Scotland and Orkney (where some of the UK's best surf breaks are situated; SAS, 2009) fall outside of the North East Region. This figure highlights that the closest surf beaches to the short term option area are in the vicinity of the villages of Keiss, Reiss and Ackergill (for surf locations see Table 12 below). The SAS (2009) report shows about 24 surfing locations occur within the OWE Plan North East Region and these are listed in Table 12 below. Fraserburgh is a particularly popular surfing location in this area and regularly holds surf competitions and events such as the UK Surf Tour and Fraserburgh Surf Festival. A survey conducted by Event Scotland predicted the Fraserburgh Surf Festival competition would generate a £100,000 windfall for the town, with surfers and visitors making use of local hotels and restaurants 17.

Table 12. Surfing and windsurfing locations in the North East Region

General Location

Surf Location

Windsurf Locations

Moray Firth - North

Sinclair's Bay

Sinclair's Bay

Keiss

Ackergill

Moray Firth - South

Lossiemouth

Nairn

Spey Bay

Findhorn Bay

Sandend Bay

Sandend Bay

Fraserburgh

Fraserburgh

Cullen

Boyndie Bay

Banff

Pennan

Wisemans

Phingask

West point

Sunnyside Bay

Eastern coast (South of Fraserburgh)

St Combs to Inverallochy

St Combs

Peterhead to St Combs

Scotstown

Cruden Bay

Cruden Bay

Stonehaven

Stonehaven

Balmedie to Newburgh

Balmedie

Aberdeen Beach

Aberdeen Beach

Aberdeen Harbour

Nigg Bay

Sandford Bay

Inverbervie

(Based on SAS, 2009 and the windsurf magazine 'beach guide')

3.10.2 East Region

Table 13 identifies key surfing and windsurfing locations in East Region. SAS (2009) describe how Scotland's east coast receives swells from the north and north-east and consistent offshore winds, although it also receive swells from the east and south east. Figure A18 shows the surf beach locations in this region identified in Scottish Government (2011). This figure highlights the presence of surf beaches adjacent to the Inch Cape, Neart na Gaoithe and Forth arrays. The SAS (2009) report shows about 10 surfing locations within the East region (although it should be noted that the area described in SAS (2009) comprises both the East and North East OWE Plan Regions and hence other surfing locations detailed in SAS, 2009 are listed in the North East Region section above). Along the southern part of the East coast of Scotland the higher population densities and more accessible surfing breaks lead to more intense use of locations such as Pease Bay ( SAS, 2009).

Table 13. Surfing and windsurfing locations in the East Region

General Location

Surf Location

Windsurfing Location

South East Scottish Coast

Johnshaven

Montrose

Lunan Bay

Lunan Bay

Arbroath

Arbroath

St Andrews West

Carnoustie

St Andrews East

Largo Bay

Kingsbarns

Queensferry

Dunbar

Portobello

White Sands

Longniddry bents

Pease Bay

Gosford sands

Coldingham Bay

Gullane

North Berwick

Sinclairs Bay

(Based on SAS, 2009 and the windsurf magazine 'beach guide')

3.10.3 South West Region

No specific surfing or windsurfing locations within the South West Region (Scottish coastline) were identified from internet searches or from the information provided by stakeholder consultees.

3.10.4 West Region

Surfers against Sewage ( SAS; 2009) describe how the west coast of Scotland and the Hebrides are exposed to well waves generated in the Atlantic Ocean and offer a range of west to north facing beach and reef breaks along the coasts of the Mull of Kintyre and the Isles of Islay, Tiree, Harris and Lewis (note the latter two are outwith the current study area). Some of these spots are described as being of very high quality, although the remoteness of the locations means that they are uncrowded most of the time ( SAS, 2009). Figure A19 shows the surf beach locations in this region identified in Scottish Government (2011). This figure highlights the presence of surf beaches on Tiree, Islay and Kintyre in relatively close proximity to the short term option areas in West Region. A large number of windsurfing locations are also present in this region.

The SAS (2009) report maps 17 surfing locations on Tiree, Islay and Kintyre and the windsurf magazine 'beach guide' maps 21 locations along the Ayrshire coast and on Tiree, Islay and Kintyre. These locations are listed in Table 14.

Tiree has a niche in outdoor activities. The Scottish Government's analysis of the responses to its Offshore Wind Draft Plan and SEA stated that 60 to 70% of the islands tourism is based on watersports such as surfing and kite surfing. In particular the island is a very important area for windsurfing. The UK's national windsurfing championships (the Tiree International Wave Classic) is held annually in October on Tiree and is of significance both for the sport and the local economy. This event contributed £0.36million to the local economy in 2004 ( SNH, 2008, cited in UKMMAS, 2010).

Table 14. Surfing and windsurfing locations in the West Region

West Coast Location

Surf Location

Windsurf Locations

Ayrshire coast

Girvan

Turnberry

Maidens

Prestwick

Troon beach (north and south)

Ardrossan

Helensburgh

Largs

Sailcoats

Tiree

Balephetrish

Crossapol

Balevullin Bay

Gott Bay

The Hough

Balevullin Bay

The Maze

The Maze

Port Bharrapol

The Green

Balephuil

The loch

Islay

Ardnave Bay

Loch Indaal

Saligo Bay

Tragh baile aonghais

Machir Bay

Machir Bay

Laggan Bay

Laggan Bay

Lossit Bay

Kintyre

Caravans

Southend

Macrihanish

Macrihanish

Middle Beach

Westport

Graveyards

Dunaverty

(Based on SAS, 2009 and the windsurf magazine 'beach guide')

3.11 Tourism

Scottish tourism depends heavily on the country's landscape, with 92% of visitors stating that scenery was important in their choice of Scotland as a holiday destination and the natural environment being important to 89% of visitors (Riddington et al, 2008).

There are 27,000 Scottish tourism businesses and more than 200,000 people are employed in tourism in Scotland, representing about 9% of all Scottish jobs ( SDI, 2009). Tourism is often associated with other specific recreational activities including marine ecotourism, recreational boating and a range of other water sports. This section focuses on general tourism and ecotourism. Recreational activities are described in other sections of this report as the interactions and issues in relation to offshore wind development are often distinctly different. There is some possibility of a degree of double counting using this approach but not to the extent that it materially affects the conclusions of the study.

This section provides information relating to the national and regional value of general tourism and ecotourism to the Scottish economy. Where possible, values related to coastal tourism have been highlighted, as this provides the most relevant information in relation to any potential economic impacts of short term option development on tourism. An indication of the importance of coastal tourism in Scotland is provided by Atkins (2004) who stated that 2.2 million holidays were taken in 2004, generating about £440million (cited in Marine Scotland, 2010a). A survey of UK and International visitors to Scotland showed that 55% explored Scottish beaches and coastline during their holiday (n=650; Harris Interactive, 2008).

The volume and value of tourism in Scotland in 2009 is provided by VisitScotland (2009a). The summary statistics from this report are shown in Table 15 below:

Table 15. 2009 tourism statistics for Scotland

2009

Trips*
(million)

Nights
(Million)

Spend
(£Million)

Average Length of Stay
(Nights)

Average Spend
per Night
(£)

Average Spend
per Trip

15.03

67.99

4095

4.5

60.23

272.48

* Tourism trips are defined as a stay of one or more nights away from home for the purpose of holidays, visits to friends or relatives, business/conference trips or any other purpose except, for example, boarding education or semi-permanent employment.

(Source: VisitScotland, 2009a)

In the future the tourism sector is likely to continue to expand with sustained growth in 'short breaks' to the coast (e.g. WAG, 2008; Atkins, 2004) and increases in tourist numbers as a result of a warmer climate (Viner et al, 2006). Scottish Development International ( SDI; 2009) stated that the tourism industry in Scotland has demonstrated consistent and sustained growth, creating further investment opportunities. A number of major resort developments are currently planned.

One tourism sector that could be affected by seascape impacts from offshore wind farm development is golfing. Scottish Enterprise identify this as a key market in the Scottish tourism industry, alongside whiskey tourism, country sports, mountain biking and food tourism 18. Many golf courses in Scotland are set among natural and wild landscapes and this is a key factor in attracting tourists (Tourism Intelligence Scotland, 2010). Of the various golf courses throughout Scotland, the links courses (coastal courses) generated significantly more revenue from their visitors than any inland courses ( SQW, 2009). An industry led body, Golf Tourism Scotland, was established in 2005 to support the market. Regional aspects of the industry are detailed below.

A recent report by ABPmer (2010) assessed the economic value of coastal and marine cultural heritage in Scotland. Examples of heritage resources included in the study were assets such as wrecks, castles, harbours, coastal and marine visitor centres, lighthouses, historic ships and maritime and coastal heritage museums 19. The results showed that in 2008, the 71 cultural assets that were able to report visitor numbers received about 1.9 million visitors. Due to the fact that the vast majority of these visitable coastal and marine heritage assets are sites that are freely open to the public (e.g. standing stones) the economic evaluation was based on a sub-set of 97 of the assets which included 'managed visitable heritage assets, all historic ships and maritime museums. The results showed that visitor income from the managed heritage assets (calculated for the 20 managed heritage assets that could supply data) was approximately £1.55million in 2008 while expenditure on employment for the same year was approximately £1.13million.

Marine wildlife tourism is defined as 'any tourist activity with the primary purpose of watching, studying or enjoying marine wildlife' (Masters et al., 1998). The sector includes viewing a range of marine species such as whales, dolphins, basking sharks, seals and seabirds. The sector may be water-based, land-based, or both and may also be formally organised or undertaken independently ( META, 2002).

Coastal wildlife tourism in Scotland has a strong emphasis on viewing cliff-nesting seabirds and seals at haul-out sites. Marine wildlife tourism operators provide access to offshore areas to view dolphins, porpoise, basking sharks and seals (Scottish Government, 2011).

Expenditure by coastal and marine wildlife visitors in Scotland has been estimated at £163 million (£100 million attributable to coastal wildlife tourism and £63million attributable to marine wildlife tourism), generating £92million of income for the Scottish economy and employing just under 4,400 FTE employees (Bournemouth University, 2010). From these values, the authors estimated that the net economic impact of marine wildlife tourism in Scotland was £15 million, with 633 additional FTE jobs, while coastal wildlife tourism had a net economic impact of £24 million with 995 additional FTE jobs. Land Use Consultants (2006) found that Lochaber and Skye, Argyll Coast and Islands, East Grampian Coast, Firth of Forth, Solway Firth and Inner Moray Firth were the most important areas for marine and coastal wildlife tourism (Figure 25).

O'Connor et al. (2009) undertook an assessment of the economic benefits of whale watching worldwide. The study found that the sector in Scotland had a total expenditure of £11,394,704 (converted from USD20 with direct expenditure of £3,077,647 and indirect expenditure of £8,317,057). Unlike in some countries, in Scotland, most operators offer marine cruises or 'sea-faris', where whale and dolphin sighting is a complementary attraction together with bird, seal and nature watching activities, rather than dedicated whale watching tours. The values above therefore are for this more generic sector. Since the last census in 1998, the number of tourists has almost doubled, equating to an annual average growth of 8.5% over the last 10 years. Five operators in Scotland are land-based.

Figure 25. Bird watching and wildlife watching

Figure 25. Bird watching and wildlife watching

(Dots represent the number of hits per seascape unit)
(Source: Land Use Consultants, 2006)

3.11.1 North East and East Region

VisitScotland's corporate website 21 provides information on the volume and value of tourism in different regions of Scotland. The information on tourism statistics in Eastern and Northern Scotland, within regions which fall completely or partially within the OWE Plan East and North East Regions are shown in Tables 16 and 17 below. It is important to note that these are indicative values only as the VisitScotland regions do not align with the OWE Plan East or North East regions and presumably represents tourism both at the coast and inland. As such, the values shown below are likely not to be particularly representative of coastal tourism in the OWE Plan East and North East regions.

Table 16. Tourism related statistics in East and North East VisitScotland Regions in 2009*

VisitScotland Region

Relevant OWE Plan Region

Type of Visitor

Trips
(Million)

Nights
(Million)

Spend
(£Million)

Edinburgh & Lothians

East - Border the southern Firth of Forth area

UK resident

2.46

6.6

562

Overseas

1.33

7.44

458

Angus & Dundee

East - Northern part of East region

UK resident

0.43

1.5

74

Overseas

0.07

0.71

31

Perthshire

East - The sub-region of Perth borders the Firth of Tay

UK resident

0.74

2.45

141

Overseas

0.13

0.63

45

Kingdom of Fife

East - Sub-regions border the southern Firth of Tay area and the northern Firth of Forth area.

UK resident

0.54

1.93

106

Overseas

0.13

0.87

78

Scottish Borders

East - Southern section of the East Region

UK residents

0.37

1.2

80

Overseas

0.04

0.29

31

Aberdeen & Grampian

North East - southern part of the North East Region

UK residents

1.25

4.38

246

Overseas

0.24

1.67

98

Highlands

North East - relevant sub-regions cover the northern part of the North East Region.

UK residents

1.87

8.35

436

Overseas

0.46

2.2

129

* The document states that for regional data, three-year averages have been used for UKTS and IPS statistics for 2009 to minimise any atypical results for a particular year, giving a better indication of overall trends.
(Sources: VisitScotland 2009 b,c)

The Argyll coast and islands are particularly important for bird and wildlife watching (Land Use Consultants, 2006). In the coastal waters of the Firths of Forth and Tay, bird and wildlife watching boat trips take visitors to the Isle of May, Inchcolm Island, Bass Rock and other locations (SeaEnergy Renewables, 2010). North Berwick represents an important focus of attraction for land-based dolphin watchers (O'Connor et al. 2009). VisitScotland (2009a) reported that 291,474 people visited the Scottish seabird Centre, North Berwick, which was classed as a major visitor attraction.

Table 17. Tourism related employment in East and North East VisitScotland Regions in 2007

VisitScotland Region

VisitScotland Sub-Region

Number of People Employed

% of Total Employment

Edinburgh & Lothians

Edinburgh City

30,900

12.6

East Lothian

2,800

6.3

West Lothian

4,200

5

Angus & Dundee

Dundee City

5,300

8.3

Angus

3,300

6.4

Perthshire

Perth & Kinross

7,700

11.8

Kingdom of Fife

Fife

No data

No data

Scottish Borders

Borders

3,700

6.9

Aberdeen & Grampian

Aberdeen

11,200

10.4

Aberdeenshire

7,200

5.9

Highlands & Islands

Highlands

14,200

13.2

(Source: VisitScotland 2009 b,c)

In the north, the Moray Firth and the Orkney Islands (the latter outwith the scope of the current study) account for approximately 35-40% of the marine wildlife watching activities, using Inverness and John O'Groats as departing points. Land-based cetacean watching is heavily focused on Chanonry Point, Moray Firth. According to local estimates, these areas can attract more than 20,000 dedicated participants a year (O'Connor et al, 2009). The total income from direct tourism expenditure reliant solely on the presence of the east of Scotland bottlenose dolphin population is considered to be at least £4 million, providing approximately 202 FTE jobs ( ACES, 2010).The bulk of dolphin tourist expenditure is received by general tourist providers around the Moray Firth region, particularly Highland (61.3%) and Moray (14.2%); around 10% is received further south by Aberdeenshire (4.5%), Angus and Dundee (3.9%), and Fife (2.6%), with the remainder (13.4%) spread throughout other areas of Scotland ( ACES, 2010).

In a response to the Offshore Wind SEA and Draft Plan consultation, the National Trust for Scotland highlighted that St Abbs Head is a very well known beauty spot, famous for its feeling of wilderness 22. It is visited by 50,000 visitors per year and is a regionally important tourist attraction.

Dive tourism has also been highlighted as being important to the local economies of the Berwickshire coastline with the underwater biological diversity of the Voluntary Marine Reserve off St. Abbs Head and Eyemouth attracting thousands of participants. Data collated by Scottish Enterprise Borders ( SEB) in 2007 estimated that 25,000 dives were undertaken in the waters off St Abbs and Eyemouth and contributed £3.7 million to the local economy. The SEB data suggests that the activity supports 81.7 FTEs in the Scottish Borders area and has a GVA of £1.5 million per annum.

VisitScotland (2009a) reported that 291,474 people visited the Scottish Seabird Centre, North Berwick, which was classed as a major visitor attraction.

There are 22 links courses in the north east region and 14 in the east 23. The majority of the north east courses are in the Aberdeenshire region, whilst most of the east coast courses are in East Lothian and one in Berwickshire.

3.11.2 South West Region

Information on tourism statistics in South West Scotland, within regions which fall completely or partially within the OWE Plan East Region are shown in Tables 18 and 19. It is important to note that these are indicative values only as the results are presented for regions which do not necessarily align precisely with the OWE Plan regions and presumably represent tourism both at the coast and inland.

The RSPB's Mull of Galloway Reserve sits on Scotland's most southerly point, its sheer sea cliffs being home to thousands of birds including kittiwakes, puffins, razorbills, guillemots and black guillemots. In both 2008 and 2009, an income into the local area of over £100,000 was attributable directly to seabirds. This equates to between 3 and 4 full time jobs being supported in the region in addition to the staff employed at the Reserve ( RSPB, 2010).

There are 5 links golf courses in the South West region 23 along the coastal margins of the Solway Firth and Luce Bay.

Table 18. Tourism related statistics in Southern VisitScotland Regions in 2009*

VisitScotland Region

Relevant OWE Plan Region

Type of Visitor

Trips
(Million)

Nights
(Million)

Spend
(£Million)

Dumfries & Galloway

Approximately whole of South West Region

UK residents

0.75

2.6

119

Overseas

0.057

0.42

24

Total

0.807

3.02

143

* The document states that for regional data, three-year averages have been used for UKTS and IPS statistics for 2009 to minimise any atypical results for a particular year, giving a better indication of overall trends.
(Source: VisitScotland, 2009c)

Table 19. Tourism related employment in Southern VisitScotland Regions in 2007

VisitScotland Region

VisitScotland Sub-Region

Number of People Employed

% of Total Employment

Dumfries and Galloway

Dumfries & Galloway

6,900

10.3

(Source: VisitScotland, 2009c)

3.11.3 West Region

No specific information on tourism values for the OWE Plan West Region are available. The most relevant statistics relate to VisitScotland's Argyll, Loch Lomond, Stirling and Forth Valley region (Tables 20 and 21), although parts of this region extend a long way inland and are thus unlikely to be affected by short term option development.

Table 20. Tourism related statistics in Western VisitScotland Regions in 2009*

VisitScotland Region

Relevant OWE Plan Region

Type of Visitor

Trips
(Million)

Nights
(Million)

Spend
(£Million)

Argyll, Loch Lomond, Stirling & Forth Valley

Roughly the rest of the West Region
(up to the Isles of Mull, Tiree and Coll but excluding the very northern part of the West Region
i.e. the highlands which fall within this regions)

UK residents

1.57

6.0

325

Overseas

0.29

1.26

83

Total

1.86

7.26

408

* The document states that for regional data, three-year averages have been used for United Kingdom Tourism Survey ( UKTS) and International Passenger Survey ( IPS) statistics for 2009 to minimise any atypical results for a particular year, giving a better indication of overall trends.
(Source: VisitScotland, 2009d)

Table 21. Tourism related employment in Western VisitScotland Regions in 2007

VisitScotland Region

VisitScotland Sub-Region

Number of People Employed

% of Total Employment

Argyll, Loch Lomond, Stirling & Forth Valley

Argyll & Bute

5,400

13

Stirling

5,200

12.5

(Source: VisitScotland, 2009d)

Tourism is the second largest private industry in Tiree in terms of GVA, with bed places having increased by 50% since 1996 (Scottish Agricultural College, 2004). Tourism and recreation are a significant part of the economic base of Kintyre 24. Both Islay and Kintyre have a successful ecotourism industry with a range of activities including boat tours for wildlife viewing (birds, whales, sharks, dolphins and porpoises; AMEC, 2010a and b).The Scottish Government's analysis of the responses to its Offshore Wind Draft Plan and SEA stated that 60 to 70% of the island of Tiree's tourism is based on watersports such as surfing, windsurfing and kite surfing 25 (for detailed analysis of the value of these recreational activities see Sections 3.10 and 3.11).

The west coast of Scotland accounts for approximately 55-60% of total marine wildlife watching visitors. The industry on the west coast is mainly centred in the Hebrides Islands, using Oban as a departure point to sail around the Isle of Mull, Isle of Iona, Treshnish Isles and Staffa (which fall within the OWE Plan West Region) and Rhum, Eigg, Gairloch and Kyle of Lochalsh to the Isle of Skye and Isle of Lewis (all within the OWE Plan North West region which is outwith the scope of the current study) (O'Connor et al, 2009). The Isle of Mull also represents an important focus of attraction for land-based dolphin watchers (O'Connor et al. 2009).

In 2000, an estimated total of approximately 242,000 tourists were involved in cetacean-related tourism activities in Western Scotland. Cetacean-related tourism was estimated to be worth over £7.8 million a year to the regions economy, accounting for 2.5% of the total income from tourism. In remote areas the activity may account for as much as 12% of total tourism revenue. Direct economic income from cetacean tourism activities was estimated to be £1.77 million per year, the rest (£6.03 million) accounts for income generated indirectly by cetacean-related tourism. Cetacean-related tourism was estimated to create 59 full-time and one part-time jobs, with 38% of these positions being seasonal (Parsons et al. 2003).

Dickie et al (2006) estimated that reintroduced sea eagles on the island of Mull attract up to €2.48 million of visitor spending each year. It should be noted that UKMMAS (2010) highlights that there are wide discrepancies in economic assessments of marine wildlife sector and that caution is required when using such indicators of value to assess regional patterns and trends.

There are 27 links golf courses in the West region 23 located along the coastal margins of the mainland, such as the new Machrihanish Dunes golf course and associated tourism developments, and offshore islands such as Colonsay and Islay.

3.12 Social Issues

Social issues have been defined as 'The consequences to human populations of any public or private actions that alter the ways in which people live, work, play, relate to one another, organize to meet their needs and generally cope as members of society. The term also includes cultural impacts involving changes to the norms, values, and beliefs that guide and rationalize their cognition of themselves and their society' (Interorganisational Committee on Principles and Guidelines for Social Impact Assessment, 2003).

The consideration of social issues could therefore include a wide range of different factors that are relevant to all regions such as:

  • Location/siting - in relation to visual impact and noise;
  • Economic - implications for existing activities and opportunities associated with potential development in terms of jobs, skills and career opportunities;
  • Infrastructure - pressure on existing medical services, transport infrastructure, public services and schools capacity; implications for housing availability and house prices; and
  • Cultural heritage - dilution of native language, changes to existing land use patterns or loss of way of life (marine wilderness).

For the purpose of this report, it is determined that the 'economic' elements of the social impacts are covered fully within the prior sections regarding the impacts on other marine activities and users. Therefore, the analysis under the 'Social Issues' section will focus predominantly on the remaining factors listed above.

Although the SEA considers landscape and seascape aspects, this is mainly in respect to their influence on the tourist industry and recreational users. However, landscape and seascape are also important in relation to psychological health and the quality of emotional and/or spiritual connections with their surrounding environment.