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Experiences of Muslims living in Scotland



1. Source Annual Population Survey 2009, see http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Labour-Market/APS2008/Q/EditMode/on/ForceUpdate/on

2. See http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/People/Equality/18934/RaceEqualityStatement

3. The term intolerance in this report refers to an unwillingness to accept the religious beliefs and/or practices of others. The term refers to both discriminatory behaviours and acts as well as prejudicial attitudes.

4. There are a number of exceptions to this. See bibliography, appendix A.

5. The 2011 Census will be carried out on 27 March 2011.

6. The majority of Muslims in Scotland come from parts of South Asia, mainly Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.

7. See http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/en/AboutGlasgow/Historv/The+Second+Citv.htm for more information.

8. Source: Information Centre about asylum and refugees ( ICAR) http://www.icar.org.uk/?lid=9982

9. Source: Annual Population Survey 2009

10. See www.statistics.gov.uk/pdfdir/ethnicity0203.pdf

11. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=955

12. Less than 3,000 people and a drive time of over 30 minutes to settlements with 10,000 or more.

13. Less than 3,000 people and a drive time of within 30 minutes to settlements with 10,000 or more.

14. Population size of 125,000 or more.

15. It must be noted that these statistics have been taken from 2001 Scottish Census and may require alteration as immigrant population size increases.

16. The 2001 Scottish Census describes a dependant as a 'person under the age of 15 or between 16 and 18, in full time education and living with his or her parent(s)' (Scottish Executive, Summary Report, 2005).

17. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=962

18. As above.

19. Scottish Executive report, analysis of religion in 2001 Census http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2005/02/20757/53572

20. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=962

21. See http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2005/02/20757/53572. It is important to note that this data was taken from the 2001 Census and provides a snapshot at that time but this may no longer be the case.

22. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=963

23. See http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2005/02/20757/53574

24. The Annual Population Survey ( APS) combines results from the Labour Force Survey ( LFS) and the English, Welsh and Scottish Labour Force Survey boosts. The boosts increase the sample size which means the APS can provide more robust labour market estimates for local areas compared to the main LFS. The APS is the primary source for information on local labour markets providing headline estimates on employment, unemployment and economic activity. See for more information: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/07/28092044/3

25. People are unemployed if they are not working and they are available to start work in the next 2 weeks.

26. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=979

27. This research was part of the Muslim Women Talk Campaign designed to include the voices of a broad section of women across Muslim communities with events being held across Britain in 2005. Events in Scotland were held in Edinburgh, Dundee and Glasgow

28. The EUMC became the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights through Council Regulation ( EC) No 168/2007 of 15 February 2007.

29. The Change Institute specialises in analysing the emerging dynamics of race, faith and identity and the impact of global changes. See http://www.changeinstitute.co.uk/

30. For more information see http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2007/12/04093619/6

31. According to this report such diversity amongst Muslim communities includes the context for migration, different settlement histories, geographies and employment trends. See link www.communities.gov.uk/documents/communities/pdf/1203896.pdf.

32. Home Office (2001), Community Cohesion: A report of the Independent Review Team - Chaired by Ted Cantle, London Home Office.

33. Home Office (2001), Community Cohesion: A report of the Independent Review Team - Chaired by Ted Cantle, London Home Office.

34. Challenges including language difficulties, lack of appropriate housing, unemployment, educational achievement, and access to health and welfare services, challenges relating to their legal status.

35. See for example a recent news article that highlights this: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/8673213.stm

36. It should be noted that anti-discrimination legislation has now been brought together by the Equality Act 2010. Religion and Belief is a protected characteristic under the Equality Act 2010. This section refers to literature published prior to the Equality Act receiving Royal Assent in April 2010.

37. Hate crimes are recorded by police in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and capture crimes where the victim or any other person perceived the criminal offence to be motivated on the grounds of race, religious belief, sexual orientation, disability or because a person is transgender. See http://www.acpo.police.uk/asp/policies/Data/084a_Recorded_Hate_Crime_-_January_to_December_2009.pdf

38. The survey findings were reported by the Forum Against Islamophobia and Racism ( FAIR), http://www.fairuk.org/introduction.htm

39. For example, the authors cite the economic and social difficulties, poor life chances, poor education and professional attainment and challenges relating to integration and social cohesion faced by Muslims.

40. In their report, in the absence of data on specifically Muslim populations the EUMC draw upon nationality and ethnicity as the closest proxy categories available. The EUMC acknowledged that a key finding across Europe has been "the shortage of adequate, reliable and objective data on religious groups" ( EUMC 2006).

41. The EUMC cite Denmark, France and Germany as examples.

42. It should be noted that not all Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are Muslim.

43. The EU- MIDIS survey measures specific discrimination experiences across nine domains of everyday life.

44. Both when looking for work and when at work. 'Looking for work' defined as "when looking for paid work out of all those who have been looking for work in the past five years preceding the interview." 'At work' defined as "at work by people who you work for or work with out of all those who have been working in the past five years preceding the interview" ( EU- MIDIS 2009).

45. As noted by the EUMC, "the available statistical information refers in general terms to broad categories of migrants or breaks information down according to nationality or ethnicity. Nationality and/or ethnicity are usually the closest proxy categories available in the absence of specific data collection on religious groups" ( EUMC 2006).

46. The Equal Opportunities Commission closed on 28 September 2007 and its work, along with the Disability Rights Commission and Commission for Racial Equality, was brought together within the Equality and Human Rights Commission which opened on 1 October 2007 established by the Equality Act 2006.

47. The General Health Questionnaire is designed to identify short-term changes in mental health.

48. The New York Times and The Guardian newspapers

49. The three violent attacks included in the research were the attacks of September 11 2001, the bombings of July 7 2005 and the (failed) bombings on June 29-30 2007 in London and Glasgow.

50. As referred to in paragraph 1.21 the term 'Islamophobia' was not used when introducing the research with young people as previous work had already indicated that this word may not be widely understood or accepted. An interest in experiences of racism was indicated at the outset.

51. The researchers were advised not to use the term 'Islamophobia' in the focus groups with young people after the discussions with Muslim women identified a strong negative reaction to the term.

52. All charts are taken from Scottish Government (2005) analysis of religion in the 2001 Census: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2005/02/20757/53568 unless otherwise stated.

53. The 2001 Census defined the highest level of qualification as follows:
Group 1: 'O' Grade, Standard Grade, Intermediate 1, Intermediate 2, City and Guilds Craft, SVQ Level 1 or 2 or equivalent.
Group 2: Higher Grade, CSYS, ONC, OND, City and Guilds Advanced Craft, RSA Advanced Diploma, SVQ Level 3 or equivalent.
Group 3: HND, HNC, RSA Higher Diploma, SVQ Level 4 or 5 or equivalent.
Group 4: First Degree, Higher Degree, Professional qualification.

54. Data was not available for Sikhs and Jews due to reliability thresholds.