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The Scottish Health Survey: Volume 1: Main Report

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Table 4.3 Saliva cotinine levels among self-reported cotinine validated non-smokers, a 2003 and 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex

Self-reported non-smokers aged 16 and over with valid saliva cotinine measurement
2003, 2008/2009 combined

Saliva cotinine level (ng/ml)

Age

Total

16-44

45-64

65+

Men

2003

Geometric mean saliva cotinine b

0.53

0.38

0.35

0.44

Confidence interval

(0.46, 0.60)

(0.33, 0.42)

(0.30, 0.41)

(0.40, 0.47)

2008/2009 combined

Geometric mean saliva cotinine b

0.12

0.11

0.11

0.11

Confidence interval

(0.10, 0.15)

(0.09, 0.13)

(0.09, 0.13)

(0.10, 0.13)

Women

2003

Geometric mean saliva cotinine b

0.44

0.33

0.32

0.37

Confidence interval

(0.38, 0.49)

(0.3, 0.37)

(0.27, 0.37)

(0.34, 0.40)

2008/2009 combined

Geometric mean saliva cotinine b

0.12

0.09

0.09

0.10

Confidence interval

(0.10, 0.14)

(0.08, 0.11)

(0.08, 0.11)

(0.09, 0.11)

All adults

2003

Geometric mean saliva cotinine b

0.48

0.35

0.33

0.40

Confidence interval

(0.44, 0.53)

(0.32, 0.39)

(0.3, 0.37)

(0.38, 0.43)

2008/2009 combined

Geometric mean saliva cotinine b

0.12

0.10

0.10

0.11

Confidence interval

(0.10, 0.14)

(0.09, 0.11)

(0.09, 0.11)

(0.10, 0.12)

Bases (weighted):

Men 2003

716

508

288

1513

Men 2008/2009

335

241

142

718

Women 2003

710

499

374

1583

Women 2009/2009

306

258

182

746

All adults 2003

1426

1007

662

3096

All adults 2008/2009

641

499

324

1464

Bases (unweighted):

Men 2003

515

552

405

1472

Men 2008/2009

214

248

206

668

Women 2003

631

682

433

1746

Women 2009/2009

280

314

231

825

All adults 2003

1146

1234

838

3218

All adults 2008/2009

494

562

437

1493

a To be included within this category, participants had to be both self-reported non-smokers and have a saliva cotinine level lower than 12ng/ml.
b Geometric means have been presented for non-smokers as their cotinine data have a very skewed and exponential distribution. A geometric mean is an average calculated by multiplying the values of the cases in the sample and taking the nth root, where n is the number of cases. As 95% confidence intervals for geometric means are more complicated to calculate than for arithmetic means, these have been presented around the estimates rather than standard errors.