Table 4.3 Saliva cotinine levels among self-reported cotinine validated non-smokers, ^{a} 2003 and 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Self-reported non-smokers aged 16 and over with valid saliva cotinine measurement
2003, 2008/2009 combined
Saliva cotinine level (ng/ml) | Age | Total |
---|
16-44 | 45-64 | 65+ |
---|
Men |
---|
2003 |
---|
Geometric mean saliva cotinine ^{b} | 0.53 | 0.38 | 0.35 | 0.44 |
---|
Confidence interval | (0.46, 0.60) | (0.33, 0.42) | (0.30, 0.41) | (0.40, 0.47) |
---|
2008/2009 combined |
---|
Geometric mean saliva cotinine ^{b} | 0.12 | 0.11 | 0.11 | 0.11 |
---|
Confidence interval | (0.10, 0.15) | (0.09, 0.13) | (0.09, 0.13) | (0.10, 0.13) |
---|
Women |
---|
2003 |
---|
Geometric mean saliva cotinine ^{b} | 0.44 | 0.33 | 0.32 | 0.37 |
---|
Confidence interval | (0.38, 0.49) | (0.3, 0.37) | (0.27, 0.37) | (0.34, 0.40) |
---|
2008/2009 combined |
---|
Geometric mean saliva cotinine ^{b} | 0.12 | 0.09 | 0.09 | 0.10 |
---|
Confidence interval | (0.10, 0.14) | (0.08, 0.11) | (0.08, 0.11) | (0.09, 0.11) |
---|
All adults |
---|
2003 |
---|
Geometric mean saliva cotinine ^{b} | 0.48 | 0.35 | 0.33 | 0.40 |
---|
Confidence interval | (0.44, 0.53) | (0.32, 0.39) | (0.3, 0.37) | (0.38, 0.43) |
---|
2008/2009 combined |
---|
Geometric mean saliva cotinine ^{b} | 0.12 | 0.10 | 0.10 | 0.11 |
---|
Confidence interval | (0.10, 0.14) | (0.09, 0.11) | (0.09, 0.11) | (0.10, 0.12) |
---|
Bases (weighted): |
---|
Men 2003 | 716 | 508 | 288 | 1513 |
---|
Men 2008/2009 | 335 | 241 | 142 | 718 |
---|
Women 2003 | 710 | 499 | 374 | 1583 |
---|
Women 2009/2009 | 306 | 258 | 182 | 746 |
---|
All adults 2003 | 1426 | 1007 | 662 | 3096 |
---|
All adults 2008/2009 | 641 | 499 | 324 | 1464 |
---|
Bases (unweighted): |
---|
Men 2003 | 515 | 552 | 405 | 1472 |
---|
Men 2008/2009 | 214 | 248 | 206 | 668 |
---|
Women 2003 | 631 | 682 | 433 | 1746 |
---|
Women 2009/2009 | 280 | 314 | 231 | 825 |
---|
All adults 2003 | 1146 | 1234 | 838 | 3218 |
---|
All adults 2008/2009 | 494 | 562 | 437 | 1493 |
---|
a To be included within this category, participants had to be both self-reported non-smokers and have a saliva cotinine level lower than 12ng/ml.
b Geometric means have been presented for non-smokers as their cotinine data have a very skewed and exponential distribution. A geometric mean is an average calculated by multiplying the values of the cases in the sample and taking the nth root, where n is the number of cases. As 95% confidence intervals for geometric means are more complicated to calculate than for arithmetic means, these have been presented around the estimates rather than standard errors.