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Scotland's Zero Waste Plan: Consultation

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Annex - G - Waste Prevention Programme, including Reuse Framework

EU requirements

1. Article 29 of the revised Waste Framework Directive ( WFD) lays down that Member States must establish, by 12 December 2013, waste prevention programmes, for all wastes. Article 29 also lays down that Programmes can either be stand-alone; or form part of other environmental policy programmes or can form part of the National Waste Management Plan. The Article says that if the Programme forms part of the National Waste Management Plan (or other environmental policy programme), the waste prevention measures shall be clearly identified.

2. This Annex, when finalised, will constitute the waste prevention programme.

3. Article 29(2) lays down that the waste prevention programme shall set out the waste prevention objectives. It further lays down that Member States shall describe the existing prevention measures and evaluate the usefulness of the examples of measures indicated in Annex IV to the WFD, or other appropriate measures.

4. Article 29(2) further lays down that the aim of such objectives and measures shall be to break the link between economic growth and the environmental impacts associated with the generation of waste.

5. Article 29(3) lays down that Member States shall determine appropriate qualitative or quantitative benchmarks for waste prevention measures adopted to monitor and assess the progress of the measures and may determine specific qualitative or quantitative targets and indicators. Article 29(4) says that indicators may be adopted at an EU level.

6. Article 29(5) says that the European Commission will create a system for sharing information on best practice on waste prevention and shall develop guidelines to help Member States prepare waste prevention programmes. Information on the Commission's work in this area can be found at: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/prevention/index.htm

7. Article 3(12) of the revised WFD defines waste prevention:

" ' prevention' means measures taken before a substance, material or product has become waste, that reduce:

(a) the quantity of waste, including through the re-use of products or the extension of the life span of products;

(b) the adverse impacts of the generated waste and on the environment and human health; or

(c) the content of harmful substances in materials and products."

Scottish Government policy and objectives

8. The Scottish Government is committed to Zero Waste. As the Cabinet Secretary outlines in the foreword to this draft Plan, this includes

  • eliminating the unnecessary use of raw materials;
  • sustainable design;
  • resource efficiency;
  • waste prevention; and
  • re-using products where possible.

9. As indicated in section 1.4 of the draft Plan, the Scottish Government considers that waste tonnage should be the main way of measuring progress towards Zero Waste. This will also apply when considering the effectiveness of waste prevention and re-use measures. Recent figures do suggest that growth in municipal waste has stopped but long-term trends are required before any firm conclusions can be drawn.

10. There is an argument that home composting is not strictly waste prevention (as waste is still produced). However, it is included in this Annex as it reduces the amount of waste collected.

11. Community composting is included in the recycling section ( Annex H).

Format of this Annex

12. This Annex goes through the examples of waste prevention measures contained in Annex IV to the revised WFD

13. To show the Scottish Government's commitment to re-use as well as waste prevention, this Annex includes a re-use framework. This can be found towards the end of this Annex.

14. The final version of Scotland's Zero Waste Plan will supersede the Household Waste Prevention Action Plan and Business Waste Framework in 2007 produced by the Scottish Government and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency ( SEPA) in 2007.

15. An update on the Household Waste Prevention Action Plan can be found at http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/waste-and-pollution/Waste-1/wastestrategy/household-waste

16. Material on the Business Waste Framework can be found at http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/waste-and-pollution/Waste-1/wastestrategy/business-waste.

17. As indicated in paragraph 1 above, this Annex will cover the prevention of all wastes and not just household wastes

One. The use of planning measures, or other economic instruments promoting the efficient use of resources

Planning measures

18. The Climate Change (Scotland) Act contains a provision allowing Ministers to make regulations requiring the production of waste prevention and management plans. (Any such regulations could apply generally and not, as in England, just to construction sites). Ministers would only intend to make regulations in this area if voluntary measures do not succeed.

19. Within the Scottish land-use planning system, we have encouraged the promotion of Site Waste Management Plans to reduce construction waste. Bodies such as the Waste and Resources Action Programme ( WRAP) and Envirowise provide advice on drawing up and implementing Site Waste Management Plans.

20. Detailed information on the costs and benefits of Site Waste Management Plans as implemented in England in a statutory basis can be found in a cost benefit analysis prepared by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs ( DEFRA): www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/topics/construction/pdf/swmp-cost-benefits.pdf

Economic instruments

21. Currently, economic instruments are generally a reserved matter for the UK Government. Question 21 of the Scotland's Zero Waste Plan consultation asks what opportunities should arise if the Scottish Government had the power to set the rate of landfill tax.

22 Another economic instrument that can affect purchasing decisions and sustainability is Value Added Tax ( VAT). Again, this is currently a reserved matter. It is also subject to EU requirements. More information on VAT can be found at http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/taxation/vat/how_vat_works/index_en.htm More information on the UK Government's approach to taxation and the environment can be found at http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/tax_environ_index.htm

Mainstreaming Zero Waste in the Scottish Government

23. Funding and policy decisions by the Scottish Government, and other public bodies, impact on waste prevention and wider Zero Waste objectives. The Scottish Government will consider further how best to mainstream waste prevention and Zero Waste into funding and policy decisions. This is in line with the Scottish Government's Greener objective.

Two. The promotion of research and development into the area of achieving cleaner and less wasteful products and technologies and use of the results of such research and development.

24. Research and Development in this area should have a clear output which can lead to reducing the amount of waste that is generated. The outputs of research should be capable of being used to implement effective waste prevention measures. An example of such research is the information obtained on the types of food wasted by households, which has then been used to inform the Love Food Hate Waste campaign (see paragraph 78 d below)

Three. The development of effective and meaningful indicators of the environmental pressures associated with the generation of waste aimed at contributing to the prevention of waste generation at all levels, from product comparisons at Community level through action by local authorities to national measures.

25. There is a need to develop indicators both to measure the scale of waste generation and to measure progress on our actions to curb it.

Measuring waste generation

26 Indicators are essential to monitor progress on waste prevention. Considerable work has been undertaken within OECD and this has been used to develop measures for Scotland ( http://appli1.oecd.org/olis/2004doc.nsf/linkto/env-epoc-wgwpr-se(2004)1-final).

27. SEPA data has been used to develop initial indicators and these will be maintained and extended:

  • municipal solid waste generation ( MSW tonnes/annum)
  • household waste generation ( HHW tonnes/annum)
  • household waste generation per household ( HHW tonnes/ HH/annum)
  • household waste generation per capita ( HHW tonnes/capita/annum)

30. It is also proposed to track household waste generation in relation to a measure of consumption such as household final consumption expenditure. This will allow monitoring of the overarching Scottish government aim of decoupling economic wellbeing from waste generation

31. To enable accurate measuring of household waste, a robust methodology will be developed for the apportionment of municipal solid waste between household and commercial fractions.

Product comparisons

32. Waste Aware Scotland's Sort It tool, on their website, provides information on goods and services which can help householders reduce waste and re-use materials. Sort It can be found at: www.sort-it.org.uk/

33. The Waste and Resources Action Programme ( WRAP) has information on recycled content of products. Use of recyclate can result in less waste arising from the extraction of raw materials. http://www.wrap.org.uk/construction/tools_and_guidance/recycled_content/

Action by local authorities

34. Waste Aware Scotland will publish information for local authorities on the cost and impact of household waste prevention campaigns.

Four The promotion of eco-design (the systematic integration of environmental aspects into product design with the aim to improve the environmental performance of the product throughout its whole life cycle).

Eco-Design services to businesses

35. Envirowise provides a wide range of Eco-design services to industry aimed at supporting businesses reduce the environmental impact of a product or packaging over its entire existence via life-cycle thinking. Envirowise offers on-site training and best practice guidance through workshops to businesses and has developed a wide range of on-line tools and publications: http://www.envirowise.gov.uk/scotland/Topics-and-Issues/Eco-Design.html

Consumer-facing campaign on the life-span of products

36. Waste Aware Scotland will launch a consumer facing campaign on the life-span of products, which will include information to householders on guarantees, repairs and spare parts. The aim is to ensure that householders have information on how to choose products with a longer-life and how to extend the lives of the products in a safe way.

37. Work here is in line with the definition of waste prevention in the WFD, quoted in paragraph 7 of this Annex, which refers to: "the extension of the life span of products".

Research on Eco Design

38. Scottish Government will publish a discussion paper on Eco Design (with the title of "Reducing Waste Through Product Design: A Discussion Paper").

39. There are clear international and EU implications in this area. Many of the products used by business and householders in Scotland may not be designed in Scotland. However, there are steps Scottish Government can take on Eco Design including:

  • ensuring businesses have a good knowledge of support services on design;
  • ensuring these support services are responsive to business needs;
  • mainstreaming design into key university and college courses; and
  • the promotion of sustainable procurement.

40. It can be challenging for Scotland by itself to have a major impact on Eco Design, given, as indicated above, the international dimension to this issue. However, Eco Design is at the top of the waste hierarchy and work on Eco Design can have a significant impact on resource efficiency, waste prevention, re-use and recycling. Therefore, the Government is committed to work on Eco Design, whilst recognising that some of the impacts may be for the longer term.

41. More information on EU policy on eco-design can be found at: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/environment/sip/sip_a2_ecodesign_en.htm

Five. The provision of information on waste prevention techniques with a view to facilitating best available techniques by industry.

42. SEPA carries out work on waste prevention within the context of Pollution Prevention Control ( PPC) regime, in line with EU and UK guidance. PPC permits focus on resource utilisation. Operators must, inter alia, carry out a systematic assessment of the raw material, energy and fuel consumption, emissions and waste production associated with the Permitted Activities. The purpose of the assessment is to identify methods of reducing raw material consumption, energy and fuel consumption, emissions and waste.

43. Envirowise develops sector best practice guidance for industry via their library of 'Good Practice Guides': http://www.envirowise.gov.uk/scotland/Our-Services/Publications.html

Six. Organise training of competent authorities as regard the insertion of waste prevention requirements in permits under this Directive and Directive 96/61/EC.

44. SEPA has carried out, and is further developing, training so that regulatory staff are aware of and are promoting waste prevention measures.

45. SEPA ensure that waste prevention is considered in relation to applications for PPC permits.

Seven. The inclusion of measures to prevent waste production at installations not falling under Directive 96/61/EC. Where appropriate, such measures could include waste prevention assessments or plans.

46. As noted in paragraph 18 above, the Climate Change (Scotland) Act contains a provision allowing ministers to make regulations requiring the production of waste prevention and management plans. Ministers would only intend to make regulations in this area if voluntary measures do not succeed.

47. As noted in paragraph 19 above, the Scottish Government is promoting Site Waste Management Plans for construction sites though Envirowise, WRAP and the land-use planning system.

Eight. The use of awareness campaigns or the provision of financial, decision making or other support to businesses. Such measures are likely to be particularly effective where they are aimed at, and adapted to, small and medium sized enterprises and work through established business networks.

Awareness campaigns for business

48. A number of awareness campaigns and awards are aimed at encouraging business resource efficiency. These include Vision in Business for the Environment in Scotland ( VIBES) ( http://www.vibes.org.uk/); the Green Tourism Business Scheme ( http://www.green-business.co.uk/index.asp); Green Business Fife Environmental Achievement Awards ( http://www.greenbusinessfife.co.uk/view_content.php?page_id=60 and work by Envirowise http://www.envirowise.gov.uk/scotland/Envirowise-in-Scotland.htm

49. In addition, SEPA, with the other UK environment agencies, provide information on environmental regulation and good practice through the NETREGS website: http://www.netregs.gov.uk/

Support to business

50. Scottish Government funds Envirowise which provides advice to business, and to the public sector, on resource efficiency and waste prevention. http://www.envirowise.gov.uk/scotland/Envirowise-in-Scotland.html

51 Key targets for Envirowise in 2009/10 are:

  • Save Scottish businesses a total of £24 million
  • Divert 80,000 tonnes of solid waste from landfill and save 20,000 tonnes of raw materials.

52. Envirowise work with established business networks (eg trade associations) to ensure that messages and advice on resource efficiency and waste prevention are disseminated widely.

53. The Scottish Government also funds the National Industrial Symbiosis Programme (Scotland) ( NISP Scotland). This helps companies by identifying profitable outlets for non-product outputs and sourcing innovative and cost effective input streams for industrial processes. NISP Scotland effort is targeted at priority industry sectors, and, in particular, to identify and deliver solutions for "difficult wastes" that do not have established markets and outlets in Scotland.

54. The key target for NISP Scotland in 2008/09 was to divert 45,000 tonnes of material from landfill. NISP Scotland has delivered over 70,000 tonnes of materials from landfill in Scotland during the last 12 months: http://www.nisp.org.uk/region_article.aspx?regionid=11&feedid=regionalnews&itemid=1 Many of the delivered synergies were for "difficult" materials, working closely with companies in Scotland that are aiming to achieve Zero Waste to landfill.

55. SEPA provides resource efficiency advice through a variety of media, such as sector and generic best practice guidance and initiatives such as Business WINS. SEPA will also signpost and refer businesses to additional sources of specialist support from other Government funded bodies.

Nine. The use of voluntary agreements, consumer/producer panels or sectoral negotiations in order that the relevant businesses or industrial sectors set their own waste prevention plans or objectives or correct wasteful products or packaging.

Waste Prevention Plans or Objectives: Construction

56. WRAP have established a commitment to halve the amount of construction, demolition and excavation waste sent to landfill by 2012: http://www.wrap.org.uk/construction/index.html The Scottish Government have signed this commitment. Table 6a in Annex B to this draft Plan shows the amount of construction and demolition waste landfilled. In 2007, 2.9 million tonnes of construction and demolition waste were landfilled - up from 2.5 million tonnes in 2006.

57. The commitment covers recycling as well as prevention but there are key elements of engagement with designers and commissioners which specifically focus on waste prevention. WRAP are also working with contractors on the use of resource logistic plans which looks at how materials are sourced, transported, delivered and managed through projects to limit waste production, including reverse logistics.

Waste Prevention Plans or Objectives: Home improvement

58. WRAP will also finalise a voluntary agreement with the UK home improvement industry. This agreement would primarily be aimed at reducing wastage from products in transit before reaching store for sale.

Waste Prevention Plans or Objectives: Direct marketing

59. The Direct Marketing Association ( DMA), with others, commissioned PAS 2020. This establishes a set of environmental objectives, performance levels and indicators for different environmental aspects of a Direct Marketing campaign. http://www.bsigroup.com/Shop/Publication-Detail/?pid=000000000030170022 Waste Aware Scotland work closely with the DMA on the promotion of the Mailing Preference Service: http://www.mpsonline.org.uk/mpsr/

Waste Prevention Plans or Objectives: Retail

60. Information on WRAP's Courtauld Commitment with retailers is at paragraphs 67 to 69 of this Annex and in Annex N, on packaging

Waste Prevention Plans or Objectives: Trade Associations

61. A number of Trade Associations such as the Scottish Food and Drink Federation http://www.sfdf.org.uk/zerowaste.aspx; the Scotch Whisky Association http://www.scotch-whisky.org.uk/swa/51.html and the Scottish Retail Consortium have published documents on their work to protect the environment http://www.brc.org.uk/policymaster04.asp?id=589&sPolicy=A+BETTER+RETAILING+CLIMATE

62. Government welcomes the development and implementation of such statements. The Scottish Government will consider what further voluntary agreements could be established with business or sectors to encourage waste prevention plans or objectives

Wasteful Products

63. As indicated in paragraphs 21 and 22, economic instruments such as VAT are currently a reserved matter for the UK Government.

64. At this stage, the Scottish Government has no intention of using levies or taxes to discourage the use of specific products. We will, however, continue discussions with retailers to promote more sustainable products.

65. When considering any action on "wasteful products", the Scottish Government, and the UK Government, have to bear in mind the requirements under the Single Market for free movement of products across the European Union.

Packaging

66. In accordance with EU requirements, a separate Annex (N) on packaging has been prepared. Key voluntary activities with business are summarised briefly below.

67. The Courtauld Commitment is a voluntary agreement between WRAP and major UK grocery organisations that supports less packaging and food waste ending up in household bins. Aims of the Courtauld Commitment are:

  • To design out grocery packaging waste growth by 2008. This was achieved.
  • To deliver absolute reductions in packaging waste by 2010; and
  • To help reduce the amount of food UK householders throw away by 155,000 tonnes by 2010, against a 2008 baseline.

68 Detailed information on the Courtauld Commitment can be found on WRAP's website at: http://www.wrap.org.uk/retail/courtauld_commitment/

69. WRAP intend to reach a new Courtauld Commitment with retailers .WRAP are currently discussing this with retailers and their supply chain. Key issues are:

  • The best way to measure progress on packaging (using Greenhouse Gas emissions might be the best way to show environmental performance generally, although further work would need to be done on how best to measure greenhouse gas emissions from packaging).
  • Ensuring that packaging put on the market is recyclable and collection and reprocessing facilities are available.
  • The type of support which should be available from WRAP.

70. Envirowise provides a range of services to businesses to help reduce packaging: http://www.envirowise.gov.uk/scotland/Topics-and-Issues/Packaging.html Envirowise has an on-line packaging tool, 'Pack-In', to help business assess and reduce environmental impacts of packaging: http://www.envirowise.gov.uk/scotland/Our-Services/Tools/PACK-IN-The-Packaging-Indicator-tool-for-eco-design.html

Ten. The promotion of creditable environmental management systems, including EMAS and ISO 14001.

71. The Scottish Government supports a number of resource efficiency activities such as Envirowise who can provide advice on creditable environmental management systems.

Eleven. Economic instruments such as incentives for clean purchases or the institution of an obligatory payment by consumers for a given article or element of packaging that would otherwise be provided free of charge.

Economic instruments

72. As indicated in paragraphs 21 and 22, economic incentives for clean purchases, such as VAT, are reserved. VAT is also subject to EU obligations.

Carrier bags

73. The Climate Change (Scotland) Act contains a provision allowing Ministers to make regulations requiring retailers to charge for bags. Ministers have made it clear that regulations would only be made if voluntary agreements should fail.

74. The Scottish Government has a voluntary agreement with retailers on carrier bags. The most recent figures show that use of thin gauge carrier bags by major grocery retailers has fallen by over 49% in Scotland: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2009/07/16113559

75. The Scottish Government will review the carrier bag agreement with retailers in 2010.

Obligatory payment by consumers for a given article or element of packaging

76. The Scottish Government has no current intention of introducing an obligatory payment by consumers for a given article or element of packaging that would otherwise be provided free of charge.

Twelve. The use of awareness campaigns and information provision directed at the general public or a specific set of consumers.

Householders

77. Information on household waste prevention is available in the Reduce and Reuse sections of www.wasteawarescotland.org.uk Work in Scotland on household waste prevention is carried out by a number of bodies including local authorities, the community recycling sector, Waste Aware Scotland and WRAP.

78. Key areas are:

a) Home composting: www.wasteawarescotland.org.uk/homecomposting

Home composting is a way of treating garden and some kitchen waste at home, reducing the need for landfill or for treatment at facilities.

Waste Aware Scotland work with WRAP on the provision of subsidised home composting bins with associated information on how to make best use of these bins.

As well as home composting bins, the programme carried out by Waste Aware Scotland and WRAP also covers kitchen caddies, food waste digesters, wormeries and Bokashi units.

The aim of the work by WRAP and Waste Aware Scotland is to achieve a reduction in the number of tonnes produced in Scotland of 41,700 by 2010/11.

WRAP, Waste Aware and CRNS are also working together on a Master Compost Programme which encourages householders to purchase bins and provides individual advice on how to use them: http://www.crns.org.uk/index/master-composter

b) Unwanted Mail: www.wasteawareunwantedmail.org.uk

Direct mail makes up around 4% of the average household bin. Some direct mail is welcomed by householders. In other cases, however, householders wish to take action to reduce the amount of direct mail they receive.

The Waste Aware Scotland campaign aims to provide householders with information on 5 ways in which they can reduce the amount of unwanted mail they receive.

The aim of the work of Waste Aware Scotland is to achieve a reduction in the number of tonnes produced in Scotland of 18,000 by 2010/11.

c) Packaging: www.positivepackage.org.uk

Waste Aware Scotland has established a "Positive Package" website, to provide information to the public on how to reduce packaging waste. This involves providing advice to householders on the need for packaging and work in progress to reduce unnecessary packaging and what householders can do to complain about potential excess packaging.

As indicated in paragraphs 67 to 69 above, WRAP have the Courtauld Commitment with retailers on packaging and food waste. This stopped growth in grocery packaging in 2008

Although not strictly waste prevention, the Waste Aware Scotland local authority campaigns have been re-branded to show images of real products and packaging that can be recycled. This is being delivered in partnership with local authorities and retailers and suppliers. Examples can be found at www.wasteawarepartners.org.uk

d) Food Waste: www.wasteawarelovefood.org.uk

Food waste makes up around 20% of the household bin. Work here has a major impact on climate change, given that food in landfill emits greenhouse gases and there are also greenhouse gas emissions from the production and transport of food that is eventually wasted.

WRAP have carried out analyses of household food waste. WRAP will publish a further report on household food waste, for Scotland, on 3 September.

Waste Aware Scotland's Love Food Hate Waste campaign builds on WRAP's research. Key messages from this campaign are about planning purchases of food, storing food appropriately, using correct portion sizes when cooking and using left-overs.

The aim of Love Food Hate Waste is to achieve a tonnage reduction of 25,000 tonnes by 2010/11.

WRAP are also working with retailers to develop smarter packaging which may enable food to be kept for longer or which may have better portioning of food for single occupancy households.

WRAP and Waste Aware Scotland will work further with the Food Standards Agency to improve consumer understanding of food labels and, in particular, "best before" and "use by" dates.

There is also other work to prevent food waste, such as FareShare, which collects surplus food from retailers for distribution to disadvantaged people http://www.fareshare.org.uk/

e) nappies: www.wasteawarescotland.org.uk/realnappies

The community recycling sector, working with WRAP and Waste Aware Scotland, provide information to parents on reusable nappies. They are also working with the NHS and other agencies to promote the re-use of nappies and to make them affordable to new parents.

f) tailored advice to householders

A number of community sector bodies provide specific and tailored advice to householders on waste prevention. For example, Changeworks carried out work in Armadale, West Lothian [ http://www.changeworks.org.uk/content.php?linkid=353] and ROWAN carries out work in the Highlands [ http://www.rowanweb.org.uk/]. Friends of the Earth Scotland are running a programme to encourage individuals and business to participate in waste prevention work: http://www.foe-scotland.org.uk/campaigns/crew/WRAP will evaluate the waste prevention projects funded through the INCREASE grants programme to produce best practice guidance and a monitoring framework for such projects going forward

79. The reasons for household participation in waste prevention activities vary. For example, those engaged in home composting may be motivated by wanting to produce compost for the garden; unwanted mail may be regarded as a nuisance and food waste has a cost. Waste Aware Scotland will do further analyses on why householders participate in waste prevention activities.

80. Waste prevention is not just about tonnage, although that is crucial. It is also about reducing the hazardousness of waste. Government will review what further work is required to reduce the hazardous nature of products used in households (and in businesses).

81. The first ever European Week for Waste Reduction ( EWWR) will take place from 21 to 29 November 2009. In Scotland, this will be co-ordinated by Waste Aware Scotland.

Schools

82. The Eco-Schools programme for primary and secondary schools includes waste prevention as one of its core topics: http://www.ecoschoolsscotland.org/page.asp?pg=40 Waste Aware Schools also provides information: www.wasteawareschools.org.uk

83. Government will:

  • Do further work to mainstream waste prevention into the Eco-schools programme
  • Mainstream waste prevention into the procurement for the construction and running of schools

Tertiary Education:

84. Government considers that waste prevention should be mainstreamed into tertiary education as well.

85. This could take two main forms:

  • Ensuring that universities and colleges prevent waste, recycle and compost and use products made from recycled materials. The Government considers, for example, that each campus should have a Campus Waste Prevention Plan which covers the complete campus and the individual buildings on the campus. This should also apply to university halls of residence. Campuses can also do the utmost to prevent food waste.
  • Ensuring that key academic courses (eg on design, architecture, land-use planning, science, food preparation and engineering) take full account of Zero Waste principles.

86. There is on-going work in this area through Waste Aware Campus ( www.wasteawarecampus.org.uk) and through the Environmental Association for Universities and Colleges http://www.eauc.org.uk whose Campus Sustainability Programme laid the groundwork for assessing current practice.

87. The Government will consider, for the final version of the Plan, what more can be done to:

  • Encourage each campus to have a Campus Waste Prevention Plan.
  • Mainstream Zero Waste into key academic courses.

Organisers of events

88. The Scottish Government will consider further what steps organisers of events should take to mainstream Zero Waste principles into the event. In particular, the Scottish Government will consider further the scope for more conditions on waste prevention to be included in licences and permissions (eg entertainment licences) and when public funding is provided.

89. The draft Plan already makes reference to Perth and Kinross Council's Waste Aware Events: http://www.pkc.gov.uk/Planning+and+the+environment/Waste+and+recycling/Commercial+waste/Waste+aware+events/Waste+Aware+Events.htm

90. In addition, there is now a British Standard on sustainable event management: http://www.bsi-global.com/en/Standards-and-Publications/Industry-Sectors/Environment/more-products/BS-8901/

91. Some community recycling organisations are already engaged in events recycling and CRNS intend to work with other members and promoters in developing events recycling.

Thirteen. The promotion of creditable eco-labels.

92. The British Retail Consortium have launched an on-pack recycling labelling system, although this promotes recycling, rather than waste prevention. http://www.brc.org.uk/policycontent04.asp?iCat=43&iSubCat=608&sPolicy=Environment&sSubPolicy=On%2DPack+Recycling+Label

93. There is on-going work on ecolabelling: http://ecolabel.defra.gov.uk/

Fourteen. Agreements with industry, such as the use of product panels such as those being carried out within the framework of Integrated Product Policies or with retailers on the availability of waste prevention information and products with a lower environmental impact.

94. Integrated Product Policy ( IPP) is likely to have more of an impact at EU level rather than Scottish. Information is available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ipp/

95. Information on agreements with industry, including on the Courtauld Commitment with retailers, can be found at paragraphs 56 to 62 of this Annex.

Fifteen. In the context of public and corporate procurement, the integration of environmental and waste prevention criteria into calls for tenders and contracts, in line with the Handbook on environmental public procurement published by the Commission on 29 October 2004.

96. The Climate Change (Scotland) Act contains a provision allowing Ministers to make regulations requiring contracts to specify the use of recyclate (including material that can be reused). Ministers, however, prefer to take voluntary measures and would only regulate where necessary.

97. For example, WRAP have provided advice on how to use procurement to drive waste prevention in construction. Information is at: http://www.wrap.org.uk/downloads/WRAP_6pp.f7b3c7ac.4372.pdf

98. To show leadership by example, the Government will finalise a Sustainable Procurement Action Plan, aimed at the whole of the Scottish Public Sector. The Sustainable Procurement Action Plan will set out progressive steps to improve the contribution public procurement makes towards sustainability.

99. The Handbook on environmental public procurement published by The European Commission on 29 October 2004 is known as Buying Green! http://ec.europa.eu/environment/gpp/handbook_en.htm The Scottish Government commends this handbook.

Sixteen. The promotion of re-use and/or repair, of appropriate discarded products or of their components, notably through the use of educational, economic, logistic or other measures such as support to or establishment of accredited repair and reuse-centres and networks especially in densely populated regions.

Background

100. This Annex has a re-use framework for Scotland, as outlined below. This re-use framework is aimed at encouraging the re-use of products which have become waste, as well as products which have not become waste. The distinction drawn in the Waste Framework Directive is outlined in paragraph 104 below.

101. The original need for a Reuse Framework for Scotland was identified in the Household Waste Prevention Action Plan (2007): http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/waste-and-pollution/Waste-1/wastestrategy/household-waste

102. The revised WFD also sets out a number of actions relating to reuse and preparing for reuse, which will be incorporated into this Framework.

103. SEPA's "Is it Waste Guidance" states that: 'Goods 'donated' to charitable organisations for refurbishment or reuse are generally waste.': http://www.sepa.org.uk/waste/waste_regulation/is_it_waste.aspx

104. The WFD defines reuse and preparing for reuse:

"reuse means any operation by which products or components that are not waste are used again for the same purpose for which they were conceived."

"preparing for reuse means checking, cleaning or repairing recovery operations, by which products or components of products that have become waste are prepared so that they can be reused without any other pre-processing."

105. The WFD also defines waste as 'any substance or object which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard'.

Product streams

106. The Scottish Government considers that work on preparing for reuse should focus on products where there are significant opportunities to increase reuse and therefore go up the waste hierarchy, in line with the revised WFD.

107. Therefore this Reuse Framework concentrates on the following:

  • Domestic furniture
  • Office furniture
  • Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment ( WEEE)
  • Books
  • Textiles
  • Paints
  • Sport and leisure equipment
  • Building materials
  • Miscellaneous commercial (one-offs)
  • Carpets
  • Children's equipment and toys
  • Small household items
  • Bikes
  • Fitted products (baths, kitchen units etc)

108. The Scottish Government is also supporting work by bodies such as WRAP to promote the re-use of packaging. Annex N provides more information on packaging.

Establishing a Framework

109. This Frameworks sets out the actions that will be taken to maximise the reuse and preparing for reuse of products in Scotland by 2013. It is anticipated that the Framework will have a secondary effect of increasing recycling of the identified product streams.

Preparing for reuse targets

110. Recital 41 of the revised WFD says that:

'In order to move to a European recycling society, with a high level of resource efficiency, targets for preparing for reuse and recycling should be set.'

111. Question 8 of the consultation asks for consultees' views on setting targets on 'preparing for reuse' for municipal waste. The majority of preparing for reuse activities are carried out by charity shops and the community sector.

112. The community recycling sector reuses around 18,500 tonnes of waste a year. This equates to around 0.5% of municipal waste arisings or 3.7 kg per capita per annum. This includes reuse of: textiles, books, furniture, bicycles and bric-a-brac.

113. Despite Scotland's strong reuse infrastructure, not all reusable items are captured from the waste stream. There is evidence that large, potentially reusable items are disposed of via Household Waste Recycling Centres ( HWRC) and bulky waste collections and small reusables via the household bin.

114. Through the Reuse Framework we will capture more of these items leading to an additional 0.7% of the waste stream being prepared for reuse. Therefore, a target of diverting 1.2% of municipal waste through preparing for reuse by 2013 should be achievable.

115. Question 9 of the consultation asks about waste prevention targets in relation to the prevention of commercial and industrial waste and construction and demolition waste. The Scottish Government considers that there may be scope for voluntary targets in relation to 'preparing for reuse' of commercial and industrial waste and will consider this further following the consultation.

116. No data exists on the quantity of reusable commercial and industrial waste but a number of product streams which can be reused, including furniture, carpets and miscellaneous commercial products will be discarded by the commercial and industrial sector.

Appropriate measures

117. Article 11(1) of the WFD sets out the type of measures that Member States should take to promote reuse and preparing for reuse:

'Member States shall take measures, as appropriate, to promote the reuse of products and preparing for reuse activities, notably by encouraging the establishment and support of reuse and repair networks, the use of economic instruments, procurement criteria, quantitative objectives or other measures.'

Network of Reuse and Repair Centres

118. The CRNS currently supports 68 reuse centres; 55 of which prepare household furniture and appliances for reuse. The remainder prepare: bicycles, small household items, books, IT equipment, building materials, children's equipment and office furniture for reuse.

119. A network of accredited reuse and repair facilities will be developed, built on the existing reuse network.

120. Measures to achieve this will include:

  • The introduction of quality standards for reuse and repair centres;
  • Support to centres to reuse additional product streams, recycle more bulky items and develop repair services;
  • The establishment of centres as local collection points for potentially reusable items;
  • The establishment of a national bulky uplift collection service and call centre that is focused on the reuse and recycling of household bulky items;
  • The establishment of a national collection infrastructure for commercial bulky waste;
  • Harmonisation of data collection and processes across the network;
  • Agreements with Local Authorities to ensure that data on preparing for reuse is sufficiently robust to contribute towards reuse targets;
  • Increased awareness through the development of a national brand for reuse centres;
  • The development of green jobs and accredited training related to reuse and repair;
  • The development of centres as carbon reduction information points within their communities.

Employment and training

121. Preparing for reuse organisations in the Scottish community sector employ 350 people, over 800 trainees and 1,000 volunteers and there are 11,000 people volunteering in Scottish charity shops.

122. There is significant scope to build on this infrastructure through the establishment of an accredited training programme for reuse and repair. This will:

  • increase jobs and training places in the preparing for reuse sector.
  • up-skill volunteers and stimulate the development of repair businesses.

123. This action will result in the provision of accredited training to 2,000 trainees and volunteers per annum by 2013.

Awareness Raising- Reuse.

124. The Scottish Government can best support reuse, as defined in the revised WFD (ie for products that have not become waste), through awareness raising and education. We will work with our delivery bodies to continue to raise awareness of reuse mechanisms, including the use of Internet exchange sites.

Awareness Raising - Preparing for reuse

125. Campaigns will be run to promote preparing for reuse activities. This will include the establishment of an annual Scottish Reuse Day.

126. There is potential to work with schools not only to raise awareness of preparing for reuse but also to run reuse days, where children can bring reusable items into school and donate them to local charity shops and accredited reuse centres.

Household Waste Recycling Centres ( HWRCs)

127. Reuse shops in recycling centres in England have been shown to achieve high levels of reuse. This report showed that re-use shops on HWRCs could increase re-use by 4% and recycling by 5%. Scotland now has 2 re-use shops on HWRCs and the CRNS are assisting in the development of a further 2. http://www.networkrecycling.co.uk/pdf/nacas/nacas_chapter3.3.pdf

128. Local Authorities will be supported by the CRNS to develop reuse shops in recycling centres through the provision of guidance, training and the establishment of exemplars.

Bulky waste

129. Local Authorities will be supported by the CRNS to work with community sector organisations that have markets for reusable items . This will lead to higher rates of reuse and recycling of the bulky waste stream. This will be achieved through training and the development of guidance on best practice and procurement.

Small re-usables

130. Many small reusable products such as textiles, books, bric-a-brac and paint may still be disposed of via the household (residual) waste bin, as there may be a lack of infrastructure to collect such items. The Scottish Government will work with Local Authorities, charity shops and the community sector to trial a variety of collection systems for small reusable household products.

Procurement

131. Local Authorities will be supported to buy reused products, not only for their own direct use, but also for their clients through, for example, the purchase of reused domestic furniture.

132. This will build on work instigated by the Scottish Government Housing and Regeneration Directorate and by a number of Local Authorities including Falkirk and North Lanarkshire Councils. Local Authorities will also be supported to write reuse clauses into contracts relating to, for example, clearance of housing voids or the procurement of office furniture.

133. There is also scope to work with buyers in particular commercial sectors, such as the hotel industry, to promote the purchasing of products that are reusable

134. A best practice guide on purchasing for reuse will be produced.

Collection infrastructure for commercial waste

135. The network of Accredited Reuse and Repair Centres will act as an infrastructure for the collection of bulky reusable products in the commercial waste stream. A call centre shall be established for businesses with reusable waste . This call centre will act as a brokerage service between businesses with reusable products and organisations that need those products. The Government will work with delivery bodies to raise awareness of this service amongst businesses in Scotland.

Scottish Government
August 2009