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Scotland's Zero Waste Plan: Consultation

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Annex - A - Waste targets - EU and Scottish

Scotland's Zero Waste Plan

1. The final version of Scotland's Zero Waste Plan will be the National Waste Management Plan for Scotland required by the revised EU Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC) and the National Waste Management Plan for Scotland Regulations 2007 ( SSI 2007/251).

2. The final version of this Plan will replace the following documents (including any targets contained therein):

  • the National Waste Strategy (1999)
  • the National Waste Plan (2003)
  • the Household Waste Prevention Action Plan (2007)
  • the Business Waste Framework (2007).

3. Question 4 of the draft Plan asks consultees for views on the future of Area Waste Plans.

4. The final version of this Plan will also include:

  • the Waste Prevention Programme required by Article 29 of the Waste Framework Directive.
  • the strategy required for the implementation of the reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills, referred to in Article 5 of Directive 1999/31/EC.
  • the chapter on the management of packaging and packaging waste required by the Packaging Waste Directive.
  • the Offshore Waste Management Plan required by the Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994.

5. As required by Article 30 of the revised Waste Framework Directive, the final version of this Plan and the associated Waste Prevention Programme will be evaluated every sixth year, and revised as appropriate.

Targets on preventing municipal waste

6. Section 2.2 of the draft Zero Waste Plan makes it clear that the Scottish Government intends to retain a target of no growth in municipal waste by 2010 and beyond. That means that we aim to stop growth in municipal waste by 2010 and that municipal waste should not grow after 2010. These targets relate to Scotland as a whole, rather than individual local authorities.

7. For the purposes of these targets, municipal waste means:

All waste for which the council makes arrangements, with the following exceptions:

  • abandoned vehicles and end-of-life vehicles.
  • road maintenance waste.
  • road sweepings collected by HGV road sweepers that are comprised overwhelmingly of mineral substances such as grit, salt and mineral oils.
  • commercial waste that is delivered to council owned or run landfill sites, where the council has no part in the collection arrangements that have led to this delivery.
  • industrial waste taken for disposal or treatment separately from any other waste.
  • construction and demolition waste, including from refurbishment work, that is collected and taken for disposal or treatment separately from any other waste.

8. Performance against these targets will be measured by using the annual Waste Data Digests published by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency ( SEPA).

9. Question 7 in the draft Zero Waste Plan asks whether Government should set a target of reducing municipal waste by 1% per annum, in line with the National Waste Strategy (1999). The same definitions and measurement would be used as above.

10. Section 2.2 of the draft Zero Waste Plan also indicates that Government will use the following indicators on household waste:

  • the amount of waste produced per head (kilogrammes per head per year); and
  • growth/falls in household waste arisings.

11. There is also further discussion on indicators in paragraphs 28 to 31 of the draft Waste Prevention Programme at Annex G.

12. Question 7 in the draft Zero Waste Plan also asks whether Government should set any specific targets on reducing household waste.

Targets on preventing commercial and industrial waste and construction and demolition waste

13. Question 9 in the draft Zero Waste Plan asks what targets, if any, should Government set in relation to the prevention of commercial and industrial waste and construction and demolition waste. Scottish Government's initial view, as outlined in section 2.3 of the draft Plan, is that Government could set national targets for 2011 when data has improved or could set targets now for specific sectors and waste streams.

Targets on re-use

14. The revised Waste Framework Directive ( WFD) draws a distinction between "re-use" and "preparing for re-use".

15. Article 3(13) of the Directive lays down that:

"'re-use' means any operation by which products or components that are not waste are used again for the same purpose for which they were conceived".

16. Article 3(16) lays down that:

"'preparing for re-use' means checking, cleaning or repairing recovery operations, by which products or components of products that have become waste are prepared so that they can be re-used without any other pre-processing".

17. In other words, "re-use", in the context of the Directive, relates to products or components that have not become waste whereas "preparing for re-use" relates to products or components which have become waste.

18. Scottish Government, in line with Zero Waste principles, strongly supports both "re-use" and "preparing for re-use".

19. However, any target would relate to "preparing for re-use" (given that this covers material that has become waste). Question 8 in the draft Zero Waste Plan asks whether the Government should set a target for "preparing for re-use" in relation to municipal waste.

20. One option could be for any such target to form part of the existing recycling/composting targets (for example, if we set a target of 1.2% preparing for re-use by 2013, this would mean that the recycling/composting target for 2013 would become 48.8% and the preparing for re-use target 1.2%). Another option could be just to aim for a preparing for re-use target relating to municipal waste arisings annually, without amending any of our existing targets. A further option could be to reduce the 2025 caps for landfill and energy from waste.

21. Article 11 (1) of the WFD lays down that:

"Member States shall take measures, as appropriate, to promote the re-use of products and preparing for re-use activities, notably by encouraging the establishment and support of re-use and repair networks, the use of economic instruments, procurement criteria, quantitative objectives or other measures."

22. Annex G to the draft Plan includes the draft Re-use Framework. Any specific target on preparing for re-use of municipal waste would count as a "quantitative objective" for the purposes of Article 11(1) of the WFD.

23. As outlined in paragraphs 32 to 36 below, Article 11 of the revised WFD also has a number of quantitative targets in relation to preparing for re-use and recycling.

Targets on recycling

24. Scottish Government has already laid down the following recycling targets in relation to municipal waste:

Year

Target

2010

40%

2013

50%

2020

60%

2025

70%

25. The definition of recycling in Article 3(17) states that:

"recycling means any recovery operation by which waste materials are reprocessed into products, materials or substances whether for the original or other purposes. It includes the reprocessing of organic material but does not include energy recovery and the reprocessing into materials that are to be used as fuels or for backfilling operations."

26. Therefore, "reprocessing of organic material" may include composting and Anaerobic Digestion if the material produced has completed the recovery process, is used on land, and can be regarded as a product rather than a waste. Outputs from biological treatment plants which are contaminated to an extent which hinders their further use - other than for subsequent waste disposal / recovery - are not "recycled" for the purposes of the definition.

27. Article 22 of the Waste Framework Directive requires Member States to take measures to encourage the separate collection of bio-waste for composting and digestion and the use of environmentally safe materials produced from "clean" bio-waste. There are plans to set common EU standards for compost quality under the end-of-waste conditions contained in Article 6.

28. Progress on the target will be measured by using the quarterly returns produced by SEPA for municipal waste and SEPA's annual Waste Data Digests. The definition for municipal waste is outlined in paragraph 7 above.

29. Article 11(1) of the WFD also lays down that:

"Member States shall take measures to promote high quality recycling and, to this end, shall set up separate collections of waste where technically, environmentally and economically practicable and appropriate to meet the necessary quality standards for the relevant recycling sectors".

30 It goes on to lay down that:

"subject to Article 10(2) [which has the caveat on where technically, environmentally and economically practicable], by 2015 separate collection shall be set up for at least the following: paper, metal, plastic and glass".

31. Annex H to the draft Zero Waste Plan discusses the Article 11(1) provisions in more detail.

32. Article 11(2)(a) of the WFD lays down the following target:

"by 2020, the preparing for re-use and the recycling of waste materials such as at least paper, metal, plastic and glass from households and possibly from other origins as far as these waste streams are similar to waste from households shall be increased to a minimum of overall 50% by weight."

33. Annex H discusses this target in more detail and indicates that the UK's intended approach to implementing the Article 11(2)(a) requirements is that the 50% target will be applied across all household waste streams (including green waste and food waste which) rather than individually to the four specified waste streams.

34 Article 11(2)(b) additionally lays down a target on construction and demolition waste:

"by 2020, the preparing for re-use, recycling and other material recovery, including backfilling operations using waste to substitute other materials, of non-hazardous construction and demolition waste excluding naturally occurring material defined in category 17 05 04 in the list of waste shall be increased to a minimum of 70% by weight".

35. Category 17 05 04 in the list of waste covers "soils and stones other than those mentioned in 17 05 03". [17 05 03 covers soils and stones containing dangerous substances].

36. Therefore, the construction and demolition target in Article 11(2)(b) relates to the preparation for re-use and recycling of non-hazardous construction and demolition waste excluding naturally occurring soils and stones.

37. Article 11(3) of the WFD lays down that the European Commission shall establish detailed rules on the application and calculation methods for verifying compliance with the targets set out in Article 11(2).

38. Article 11(4) of the WFD lays down that:

"By 31 December 2014 at the latest, the Commission shall examine the measures and the targets referred to in paragraph 2 with a view to, if necessary, reinforcing the targets and considering the setting of targets for other waste streams".

39. Article 11(5) lays down that "Every three years, in accordance with Article 37, Member States shall report to the Commission on their record with regard to meeting the targets" contained in Article 11.

Targets on reducing the amount of waste sent to landfill

40. Question 15 in the draft Zero Waste Plan seeks views on whether the Government should set a target on reducing the amount of commercial and industrial waste sent to landfill by 150,000 tonnes a year.

41. There are existing targets in the Landfill Directive on reducing the amount of biodegradable municipal waste sent to landfill. Their impact on Scotland is shown in the table below:

Year

Scotland's share of Landfill Directive target for
Biodegradable Municipal Waste ( BMW)

Reduction relative to 1995 levels

2010

Reduce BMW landfill to 1.32 million tonnes

75%

2013

Reduce BMW landfill to 880 thousand tonnes

50%

2020

Reduce BMW landfill to 620 thousand tonnes

35%

Cap on landfill.

42. Scottish Government expects that no more than 5% of municipal waste will go to landfill by 2025.

43. Whether the cap on landfill has been breached or not will be monitored through SEPA's annual Waste Data Digest.

Cap on energy from waste.

44. The Scottish Government expects that no more than 25% of municipal waste will go through energy from waste by 2025.

45. A detailed explanation of the cap (which applies at a local authority level as well as at an-Scotland level) is at Annex J. The cap does not extend to commercial and industrial waste although all forms of energy from waste must comply with SEPA's thermal treatment guidelines, which encourage high levels of efficiency: http://www.sepa.org.uk/waste/waste_regulation/energy_from_waste.aspx

46. Whether the cap on energy from waste has been breached or not will be monitored through SEPA's annual Waste Data Digest. The cap will be enforced through the land-use planning system, as outlined in Annex J.

Summary of existing and proposed targets.

47. The tables below summarise existing targets and potential new ones on which questions are asked in the draft Zero Waste Plan:

Existing targets

Target

Year

Derivation

Stop growth in municipal waste

2010 and continue thereafter

Scottish Government target

40% recycling/composting of municipal waste

2010

Scottish Government target

No more than 1.32 million tonnes of biodegradable municipal waste to be sent to landfill

2010

Article 5(2) of the EU Landfill Directive

50% recycling/composting of municipal waste

2013

Scottish Government target

No more than 880,000 tonnes of biodegradable municipal waste to be sent to landfill

2013

Article 5(2) of the EU Landfill Directive

Separate collections for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass, where technically, environmentally and economically practicable. [This covers all wastes - not just household].

2015

Article 11(1) of the revised EU Waste Framework Directive, as read with Article 10(2)

60% recycling/composting of municipal waste

2020

Scottish Government target.

No more than 620,000 tonnes of biodegradable municipal waste to be sent to landfill

2020

Article 5(2) of the EU Landfill Directive

The preparing for re-use and the recycling of waste materials such as at least paper, metal, plastic and glass from households, and possibly from other origins as far as these waste streams are similar to waste households, shall be increased to a minimum of overall 50% by weight. [As indicated above, the equivalent Scottish Government target is 60% recycling/composting of municipal waste. The EU target is a "minimum". Higher recycling targets bring environmental benefits, as shown in the Life Cycle Analysis at Annex I.]

2020

Article 11(2)(a) of the revised EU Waste Framework Directive.

The preparing for re-use, recycling and other material recovery, including backfilling operations using waste to substitute other materials of non-hazardous construction and demolition waste excluding naturally occurring material defined in category 17 05 04 in the list of waste shall be increased to a minimum of 70% by weight.

2020

Article 11(2)(b) of the revised EU Waste Framework Directive.

No more than 5% of municipal waste to go to landfill

2025

Scottish Government target

No more than 25% of municipal waste to go to energy from waste

2025

Scottish Government target

Proposed targets

Target

Year

Derivation

Reduce municipal waste by 1%

Each year

Potential Scottish Government target

Targets on reducing household waste

Each year

Potential Scottish Government target

Target on preparing for re-use, in relation to municipal waste

Each year

Potential Scottish Government target.

Targets on preventing commercial and industrial waste and construction and demolition waste

Each year

Potential Scottish Government targets

Reduce the amount of commercial and industrial waste sent to landfill by 150,000 tonnes a year

Each year

Potential Scottish Government target

Scottish Government
August 2009