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Domestic Abuse 2008/09: Post Campaign Evaluation Report

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3 MAIN FINDINGS

Summary

  • The proportion of respondents who had any experience of domestic abuse dropped from Wave 11 from 38% to 21% and nearly 1 in 10 (8%) reported having personally been the victim of domestic abuse when.
  • Number saying domestic abuse was most common amongst younger people remained steady at 76% and respondents were still most likely to say that domestic abuse was most common amongst the working classes (87%)
  • 45% spontaneously cited 'police/ ambulance/ emergency services' as a service available to women who might be experiencing domestic abuse.
  • This year the proportion spontaneously aware of advertising or publicity about domestic abuse dropped to 30%, with prompted at 39%. Overall 90% of those who spontaneously recalled the advertising spontaneously recalled at least one element.

Experience of Domestic Abuse

3.1 To ensure respondents answered as truthfully as possible, where the question could be considered sensitive respondents were handed the CAPI machine and asked to complete the section of the questionnaire themselves.

3.2 Respondents were asked whether they had any close friends or relatives who had been the victim of domestic abuse; if they had personally been a victim or if they personally been responsible. Key findings are details in Figure 3.1 below.

Figure 3.1: Experience of Domestic Abuse

Figure 3.1: Experience of Domestic Abuse

Base: All respondents
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.3 The proportion of respondents who had any experience of domestic abuse dropped from Wave 11 from 38% to 21%, mainly due to the drop in numbers who acknowledged that they had a friend or relative who had been a victim of domestic abuse.

Table 3.1: Experience of Domestic Abuse by Demographics

Friends / Relatives

Self Victim

Self Responsible

W10

W11

W12

W10

W11

W12

W10

W11

W12

Sex

Male

29

30

16

8

8

3

3

2

2

Female

43

39

24

23

18

13

3

2

2

Age

16-24

39

37

20

10

6

5

2

2

2

25-34

51

44

25

22

15

5

6

5

1

35-44

44

47

32

22

23

14

5

3

4

45-54

43

39

22

18

16

9

1

3

2

55-64

33

35

14

16

14

8

4

2

4

65+

15

15

8

6

7

4

2

*

1

SEG

AB

26

30

11

6

6

2

3

1

1

C1

34

39

16

14

12

6

3

1

3

C2

35

32

28

14

14

13

3

2

2

DE

49

36

25

25

20

9

4

5

3

Base: W10: 1,008; W11: 1,012; W12: 1,040 (All respondents)
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.4 There was little change in those respondents reporting that they had ever been responsible for the abuse of their partner at 2% (2% last year). Again, similar to previous Waves, there was little difference between the genders.

3.5 Despite the overall drop, females and those from the C2 DE socio economic grouping were more likely to know a victim, continuing the trend from the previous 3 Waves.

3.6 Nearly 1 in 10 (8%) respondents reported having personally been the victim of domestic abuse when asked. This again shows a decline on the previous Wave, from 13%. As before however, females and those from the C2 DE socio economic group were more likely to have personally been a victim.

3.7 In Wave 9 a question was introduced asking those who had personally been the victim or been personally responsible for domestic abuse, whether there were children in the house when the abuse occurred, and for this Wave the question was also asked of those who had friends or family who had been the victim of domestic abuse. The results are shown below.

Figure 3.2: Whether Children were in the house when domestic abuse occurred

Figure 3.2: Whether Children were in the house when domestic abuse occurred

Base: Victims, those responsible, or had friends / family who had experienced domestic abuse
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.8 Children were present in around three-quarters (76%) of cases where the victim was a friend or relative of the respondent. Where the respondent had personally been the victim, the figure was 57%, a drop from last year's 64%, and continuing the downwards trend from the last four Waves. Whether children were present when the respondent had been responsible for the abuse of their partner remained consistent with last year at 75% (76% in Wave 11), and could indicate that the sharp rise last year (from 60% in Wave 10) was not a fluke, although the low base size means no conclusions can be drawn at this stage.

Sectors of society where abuse is most common

3.9 The domestic abuse campaign has always tried to communicate that domestic abuse can happen to any person - of any age and social class.

3.10 Therefore, as with previous years, a number of questions were asked in order to explore respondents' perceptions of whether domestic abuse is more prevalent in certain sections of society. All respondents were asked which broad age group(s) and social class did they think domestic abuse occurred most often. Responses are detailed in the charts and tables below.

Figure 3.3: Sectors where abuse more common: Age

Figure 3.3: Sectors where abuse more common: Age

Base: All respondents
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.11 The number of respondents saying that domestic abuse is something that happens in all age groups dropped from 45% in Wave 11 to 32% this Wave, whilst the number of people saying that domestic abuse was most common amongst younger people remained steady at 76%. However, those saying that middle aged or older people were the groups in which domestic abuse was most common dropped (from 81% to 63% and 49% to 35% respectively).

3.12 These shifts in perceptions may in part have been as a result of two rather high profile storylines in the soap opera 'Hollyoaks' within the last year, both with young female victims. Influences like these could go some way to explaining why respondents were most likely to think domestic abuse was most common amongst younger people.

Table 3.2: Age groups in which domestic abuse happens more often

Total

Male

Female

W10

W11

W12

W10

W11

W12

W10

W11

W12

Younger people

72

76

76

67

71

73

76

79

78

Middle aged people

79

81

63

77

77

59

81

84

68

Older people

47

49

35

40

41

31

53

57

38

All age groups

42

45

32

34

36

32

49

54

52

Don't know / not stated

2

2

9

2

2

11

2

2

7

N (Unweighted)

1008

1012

1040

447

421

520

561

591

520

Base: W10: 1,008; W11: 1,012; W12: 1,040 (All respondents)
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.13 Perceptions of the incidence of domestic abuse in various social classes are shown in Figure 3.4 below.

Figure 3.4: Sectors where abuse more common: Social Class

Figure 3.4: Sectors where abuse more common: Social Class

Base: All respondents
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.14 Wave 12 saw a drop in respondents saying that domestic abuse was most common across all social classes, from 61% in Wave 11 to 40% this Wave.

3.15 Respondents were most likely to say that domestic abuse was most common in the working classes, with 87% choosing this option. This has remained steady over the past four Waves (W11 88%, W10 87%, W9 89%).

Table 3.3: Social classes in which domestic abuse happens more often

Total

Male

Female

W10

W11

W12

W10

W11

W12

W10

W11

W12

Upper classes

63

63

45

56

53

43

70

72

47

Middle classes

76

77

53

68

70

49

84

83

57

Working classes

87

88

87

89

88

88

86

88

87

All classes coded

60

61

40

52

52

43

67

70

56

Don't know / not stated

2

3

8

2

2

8

2

3

8

N (Unweighted)

1008

1012

1040

447

421

520

561

591

520

Base: W10: 1,008; W11: 1,012; W12: 1,040 (All respondents)
Source: mruk research, February 2009

Awareness of Services Available to Women

3.16 As the main aim of this year's domestic abuse campaign was to communicate that there were services available to help women who were experiencing domestic abuse, a new question was added to track awareness of such services. Responses are detailed in Figure 3.5 below.

Figure 3.5: Services available to women who may be experiencing domestic abuse (spontaneous)

Figure 3.5: Services available to women who may be experiencing domestic abuse (spontaneous)

Base: All respondents
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.17 Approaching half the respondents (45%) spontaneously cited 'police/ ambulance/ emergency services' as a service available to women who might be experiencing domestic abuse.

3.18 Optimistically, 13% of respondents mentioned the Scottish Domestic Abuse Helpline, which is featured in the advertising campaign. There are also some interesting gender differences. Female respondents were more likely to say Women's Aid (51%); Victim Support (19%) and/or Scottish Domestic Abuse Helpline whereas Males were more likely to be unaware of any services that were available to women who may be experiencing domestic abuse, with a quarter of them (25%) recording a 'don't know' answer compared with only 14% of women.

3.19 There may be two contributing factors to the large number of respondents spontaneously mentioning the Emergency Services. Firstly, in many minds domestic abuse is perceived to be violent, therefore requiring the Police or Ambulance Services. Secondly, Strathclyde Police launched their latest domestic abuse campaign at a similar time which may have increased spontaneous awareness for the emergency services.

Awareness of Advertising or Publicity about Domestic Abuse

3.20 The proportion of people spontaneously aware of advertising or publicity about domestic abuse has been consistently high at more than seven in ten over the last four waves. This year the proportion spontaneously aware dropped to 30% as seen in Figure 3.6 below.

Figure 3.6: Seen / heard any advertising or publicity recently on the subject of domestic abuse (spontaneous)?

Figure 3.6: Seen / heard any advertising or publicity recently on the subject of domestic abuse (spontaneous)?

Base: All respondents
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.21 However, this figure should be looked at in the context of a number of changes. Firstly, the campaign strategy itself has changed. Rather than communicate the effect of abuse on the victim or children in the home in a fearful, strong campaign, this year the tone was much more empowering and contained no violent or controlling scenes or upset children. Consequently, the softer, subtle nature of the tone may have reduced the level of cut through and failed to engage the population to the same extent as previous campaigns especially in the busy Christmas and New Year period.

3.22 Secondly, the volume of air time was much lower than the 2007-2008 campaign. And finally, the media mix was different with only television and online media being utilised.

3.23 Those respondents who did recall seeing or hearing advertising or publicity about domestic abuse were asked where they had seen or heard it (Figure 3.7) 1.

Figure 3.7: Sources of spontaneous advertising awareness

Figure 3.7: Sources of spontaneous advertising awareness

**Less than 1%
* Not included in previous Waves
Base: All those spontaneously aware of domestic abuse advertising
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.24 Although spontaneous awareness across all media dropped, this was expected given both the reduction in media spend and the media mix. In Wave 11 the media mix consisted of television, radio, outdoor and PR activity whereas this year the spend was on television and online only. This difference is clear from the large drop in those spontaneously recalling outdoor; radio and newspapers.

Spontaneous Content Recall from advertising

3.25 Respondents who recalled seeing or hearing advertising on the subject of domestic abuse were asked spontaneously to describe what they had seen. The results are detailed in Figure 3.8 below. Due to the new campaign this cannot be compared to previous waves.

Figure 3.8: Details recalled from TV advertising

Figure 3.8: Details recalled from TV advertising

Base: 315 (All those who spontaneously recalled advertising about domestic abuse)
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.26 Overall, 90% of those who spontaneously recalled seeing or hearing advertising or publicity on the subject of domestic abuse subsequently spontaneously recalled at least one element of the TV execution. In addition the call to action was clearly recalled with nearly one third recalling either a direction to telephone or visit the website.

3.27 Interestingly, there was little differences between the genders in specific elements recalled other than the "feather floating" (recalled by 23% males - 31% females).

Prompted Recall from Current Campaign

3.28 All respondents were then played the current domestic abuse campaign advert 'I Soar' in full.

Figure 3.9: Recall seeing "I Soar" when prompted with TV ad

Figure 3.9: Recall seeing "I Soar" when prompted with TV ad

Base: All respondents
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.29 Overall, 39% of respondents said they recalled seeing 'I Soar'. This was higher amongst women (43%) and those aged between 25 and 44 (48%).

3.30 Respondents who did recall seeing the advert were then asked spontaneously what they though the main message of the advert had been. Results are detailed in Figure 3.10.

Figure 3.10: Main message taken from " I Soar" (spontaneous)

Figure 3.10: Main message taken from "I Soar" (spontaneous)

Base: 405 ( All those who recall seeing 'I soar' when prompted with TV ad)
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.31 Nearly half (49%) stated " There's help available if you need it". In addition, a further 45% stated "There's a friendly ear to listen to". Clearly the main aim of the campaign has been achieved - to make sure that women in abusive situations know they have somewhere to turn for a range of help. Also the strong, single minded call to action has been successful.

3.32 Even more reassuring 40% of respondents took the main message of the campaign to be " Domestic Abuse - There's No Excuse" - one of the key messages of the campaign. Last year this figure was only 18%.

3.33 To asses the tone of voice the execution communicated, respondents were asked which words or phrases from a showcard list they associated with 'I Soar'.

Table 3.4: Words or phrases associated with "I Soar" (Prompted)

Total
%

Females
%

Seen Advert
%

Informative

46

49

61

Gives a sense of hope

30

37

40

Useful

28

28

34

Empowering

21

24

30

Don't know what it's trying to say

16

13

3

Makes me feel emotional

11

18

17

Really clear

9

12

12

Poetic

8

11

11

Friendly

8

12

8

Didn't understand it

6

5

-

Didn't like voiceover

3

3

-

Beautiful

3

4

-

Didn't like poem

2

2

-

Not believable

1

2

-

Other

2

1

-

Base: All respondents
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.34 Clearly, nearly half (46%) associated 'informative' with the execution. This figure rose to 61% amongst those that recalled the advert when prompted. Nearly one-third (30%) also associated ' gives a sense of hope' but amongst females this figure rises to 37% and amongst those who recalled the advert, to 40%.

3.35 This would tend to underline the observation that more exposure to the campaign was more likely to elicit a positive association.

3.36 Respondents were then questioned as to their likelihood of calling the helpline or visiting the website if they or someone they know was experiencing domestic abuse. The results are detailed in Figure 3.11 below.

Figure 3.11: If you or someone you know was thought to be experiencing domestic abuse how likely would you be to…

Figure 3.11: If you or someone you know was thought to be experiencing domestic abuse how likely would you be to…

Base: All respondents
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.37 Overall, 47% of respondents said they would be either likely or very likely to call the telephone number. This was higher amongst females (56%) and those aged 25-44 (54%).

3.38 Overall, 38% said they would be either likely or very likely to visit the website. Again this was higher amongst females at 45%.

3.39 After exposure to the television execution all respondents were questioned regarding their perceptions of service availability for domestic abuse victims again linking to the key messages of the campaign that there is a range of help available. These responses are detailed below in Figure 3.12:

Figure 3.12: Agreement with…

Figure 3.12: Agreement with…

Base: All respondents
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.40 Only a third of respondents (36%) either agreed or agreed strongly with 'I believe there are enough services available to help women who may be experiencing domestic abuse'. This was slightly higher amongst females at 39% and amongst those in the DE social group (44%).

3.41 Nearly two thirds (62%) agreed or strongly agreed that ' I would likely talk to other family / friends first if I, or someone I knew was experiencing domestic abuse'. Again, this was slightly higher amongst females (67%).

3.42 Nearly half (49%) disagreed or disagreed strongly with the statement 'I believe there are enough services available to help men who may be experiencing domestic abuse'. Men were more likely to disagree here (53%) as were those aged 35-44 (56%).

3.43 The most interesting figures here are those that neither agreed nor disagreed with these statements. With such a high 'neither/nor' response (and no 'don't know' option) it is clear that a large number of respondents just lacked knowledge of the subject area.

Attitudes Towards Domestic Abuse

3.44 Since the campaign began it has tried to communicate the message that domestic abuse is unacceptable. Consequently at each campaign evaluation public attitudes towards domestic abuse is assessed. This is measured by asking the respondents to state their level of agreement with a series of statements, again using the CAPI machines to complete this section of the questionnaire themselves. These results are detailed in Figure 3.13 below:

Figure 3.13: Attitudes towards Domestic Abuse

(Agree & Strongly Agree Combined)

Figure 3.13: Attitudes towards Domestic Abuse

Base: All respondents
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.45 For the majority of statements there are little changes in attitudes from previous waves.

3.46 However, there was a large drop in those agreeing about escaping from domestic abuse and making a new life for themselves and a correlating upturn in those believing such people just had to learn to live with it. This could be linked to other similar campaigns respondents may have been exposed to at the same time. The Barnados campaign, with one TV execution showing a female being repeatedly slapped - could be associated with not being able to escape domestic abuse.

Exploitation of Women

3.47 In 2006, additional questions were added to the annual evaluation to look at attitudes towards wider forms of violence against, and exploitation of, women. These questions were only asked of respondents 18yrs or over and self-completed. Responses are detailed in the charts below.

Figure 3.14: Those that regard the following as exploitation of women…

Figure 3.14: Those that regard the following as exploitation of women…

Base: All respondents
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.48 The majority of respondents thought that pornography and prostitution were exploitative of women (56% and 63% respectively) with more respondents considering prostitution to be exploitative. There has been a slight drop from last Wave of those considering either activity to be exploitative.

3.49 Females (69%) were more likely than men (43%) to see pornography as exploitative, as were those over 65 (69%) and those in the AB social grouping (69%). Interestingly, agreement that pornography is exploitative decreases with age group (65+ - 65%, 25-34 - 41%), with the exception of those aged 18-24, amongst whom agreement was 57%.

3.50 With prostitution, women were again more likely to see it more exploitative than men (75% and 50% respectively). Those over 65 were also more likely to agree (70%), as were those in the AB social grouping (69%).

3.51 Respondents were then asked to what extent they thought three actions, all of which could be perceived as exploitation or violence against women, were acceptable or unacceptable. Results are shown below.

Figure 3.14: Level of unacceptability of following activities…

Figure 3.14: Level of unacceptability of following activities…

Base: All respondents
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.52 The majority (97%) of respondents thought that 'pressuring a woman to take part in sexual activities if she doesn't want to' was either unacceptable or totally unacceptable, a slight increase on Wave 11.

3.53 Just over 6 in 10 (61%) respondents thought that 'purchasing / viewing pornographic materials' was either unacceptable or totally unacceptable, broadly consistent with the previous two Waves. However, a fifth (20%) of respondents was undecided, and approaching a fifth (18%) thought that it was acceptable. Men were more likely to think it was acceptable (27% to 10%).

3.54 'Paying someone for sex' has stayed steady over the last four Waves with around two thirds of respondents thinking it was unacceptable or totally unacceptable, 68% at this Wave. Approaching a quarter (23%) of respondents was undecided on this, and 9% thought it acceptable.

3.55 A question on attitudes to rape and the level of responsibility of the victim in different circumstances was added to the questionnaire at Wave 10. Responses are shown below with totally, mostly and partly responsible responses combined.

Figure 3.15: Level of responsibility for rape by circumstance

Figure 3.15: Level of responsibility for rape by circumstance

Base: All respondents
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.56 As with previous waves, the majority of respondents do not believe that a women is responsible for rape most circumstances.

3.57 Just over a quarter (26%) of respondents thought that a woman was partly, mostly or totally responsible for being raped 'if she is drunk'. Although a slight increase on Wave 11, this figure has remained relatively consistent over the last three Waves.

3.58 Around a fifth (21%) of respondents thought that a woman was partly, mostly or totally responsible for being raped 'if she is dressed in revealing clothing'. This figure has shown a slight decrease since Waves 10 and 11.

3.59 The number of respondents who thought that a woman was partly, mostly or totally responsible for being raped 'if she is flirting' has decreased since the question was introduced in Wave 10. This Wave just under a fifth (19%) thought this, down from 29% last Wave.

3.60 There has also been a decrease since Wave 10 of respondents who thought that a woman was partly, mostly or totally responsible for being raped 'if she is known to have many sexual partners', from 17% in Wave 10, to 13% this Wave. This softening in attitudes to could be due in part to the high profile recent 'this is not an invitation to rape me' campaign by Rape Crisis Scotland.

3.61 Differences in response by age group are highlighted in the graph below.

Figure 3.16: Extent to which woman is responsible for rape: - by age of respondent

Figure 3.16: Extent to which woman is responsible for rape: - by age of respondent

Base: All respondents
Source: mruk research, February 2009

3.63 As in the previous two Waves, older respondents were more likely to think that women were in any way responsible for being raped, and similar to Wave 11, respondents aged 18-24yrs were also more likely to think women were in any way responsible for being raped.