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Poverty and Income Inequality: A review of the evidence

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Footnotes

1. Scottish Government. 2007. The Government Economic Strategy.http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2007/11/12115041/0
2. Scottish Government. 2008. Achieving Our Potential: A framework to tackle poverty and income inequality in Scotland.http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2008/11/20103815/0
3. Consultation followed publication of Taking Forward The Government Economic Strategy: A Discussion Paper on Tackling Poverty, Inequality and Deprivation in Scotlandhttp://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2008/02/01150409/0 . Analysis of responses to the consultation document can be accessed from the Scottish Government website. Analysis of Consultation Responses to Taking forward the Government Economic Strategy: a Discussion Paper on Tackling Poverty, Inequality and Deprivation in Scotland.http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/People/Social-Inclusion/ConsultationResponse
4. This analysis was conducted before the release of the updated Households Below Average Income figures. The most current figures were recently published in Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland: 2007/08. This official publication can be accessed online at http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/933/0081018.pdf
5. The Scottish Government has developed 45 National Indicators to track progress towards achievement of its National Outcomes and progress towards delivery of its Purpose.
6. Scotland Performs - National Indicators
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/About/scotPerforms/indicators
7. Scottish Government. 2008. National Statistics Publication Scottish Households Below Average Income 2006/07. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2008/06/09143258/0
8. All figures are rounded to the nearest 10,000 and for this reason the total number of individuals in low income poverty does not appear to equal the sum of children, working age adults and pensioners
9. For detailed information on the numbers found in each category, please refer to the publication: Scottish Government. 2008. National Statistics Publication Scottish Households Below Average Income 2006/07. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2008/06/09143258/0
10. In 2009, the UK Government will embed their commitment to eradicate child poverty by 2020 in UK-wide legislation. Consultation is currently ongoing.
11. DWP. 2003. Measuring Child Poverty.http://www.dwp.gov.uk/consultations/consult/2003/childpov/final.pdf
12. Updated child poverty figures published after this analysis was conducted can be found in Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland: 2007/08 and can be accessed online at http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/933/0081018.pdf
13. For more information regarding households living in poverty trends for education, employment, in-work poverty, housing, health and disability, debt and financial exclusion, and crime, please refer to Annex A in the Discussion Paper on Tackling Poverty, Inequality and Deprivation in Scotland. Alternatively, the Scottish Government Income and Poverty Statistics website provides further analysis of key income poverty trends.
14. Scottish Government. 2007. Government Economic Strategyhttp://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/202993/0054092.pdf
15. For more information regarding methodology utilised in analysis of income inequality, refer to Scottish Government. 2007. Scottish Economic Statistics 2007 - Article 1 Income Inequality.http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2007/07/18083820/0
16. Ibid.
17. Ibid.
18. The error bars above and below the value of Gini coefficient indicate the range of values within which the true value lies 95% of the time.
19. Updated income inequality figures published after this analysis was conducted can be found in Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland: 2007/08 and can be accessed online at http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/933/0081018.pdf
20. Scottish Government. 2008. Scottish Economic Statistics 2008 - Article 2: Low pay and in-work poverty in Scotland.http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/01/29150444/0
21. See Prime Minister's Questions in the House of Commons on 5 March 2009 Col 1736 at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200708/cmhansrd/cm080305/debtext/80305-0002.htm#08030572001093
22. Scottish Government. 2008. Scottish Economic Statistics 2008 - Article 2 Low Pay and In-work Poverty in Scotland. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/01/29150444/0
23. Scottish Government. 2008. Scottish Economic Statistics 2008 - Article 2: Low pay and in-work poverty in Scotland.http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/01/29150444/0
24. HM Revenue and Customs - National Minimum wage http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/nmw/
25. Rural Authorities have been defined as those where the percentage of 'rural' postcodes is greater than the Scottish average. 'Rural' postcodes are those categorised as 'remote rural', 'accessible rural', or 'remote small town' by the Scottish Government's 6-Fold Urban Rural Classification. Eilean Siar, Orkney Islands, Shetland Islands, Argyll & Bute, Highland, Aberdeenshire, Moray, Dumfries & Galloway, Perth & Kinross, Scottish Borders, East Lothian, Stirling, East Ayrshire, South Ayrshire, and Angus fall into this definition.
26. Scottish Government. 2008. Relative and Absolute Poverty by Rural, Urban and Deprived Areas: 2005/06 and 2006/07. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Social-Welfare/IncomePoverty/urbanruralpov/Q/EditMode/on/ForceUpdate/on
27. Scottish Government. 2008. Rural Scotland Key Facts 2008 - Chapter 4- Economy and Enterprisehttp://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2008/08/27154843/4
28. The threshold of £7 per hour (gross) is roughly two-thirds of Scotland's median hourly earnings and is commonly used as a threshold to analyse low pay.
29. Walker and Zhu. (2007). 'The Labour Market Effects of Qualifications', Futureskills Scotland. http://www.futureskillsscotland.org.uk/web/site/home/Reports/WhatEmployersThink/Report_Skill_Gaps.asp
30. DfES AND DWP, (2007). A shared evidence base: The role of skills in the labour market.http://www.dwp.gov.uk/asd/asd5/rports2007-2008/roleofskillsreport.pdf
31. ibid. p. 28
32. ibid. p. 22
33. ibid. p. 23
34. Scottish Government. 2008. Parents' Access to and Demand for Childcare Survey 2006 Final Report.http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/206909/0054961.pdf ; Skinner, C. 2006. How can childcare help to end child poverty? Joseph Rowntree Foundation http://www.jrf.org.uk/bookshop/eBooks/9781859355053.pdf
35. Scottish Government. 2008. Parents' Access to and Demand for Childcare Survey 2006 Final Report. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/206909/0054961.pdf p 68
36. Ibid. p. 68
37. Ibid. p. 153
38. House of Commons Scottish Affairs Committee. 2008. Child Poverty in Scotland - Third Report of Session 2007-08.
http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.com/pa/cm200708/cmselect/cmscotaf/277/277.pdf
39. ibid. p.15
40. ibid. p.15
41. House of Commons Scottish Affairs Committee. 2008. Child Poverty in Scotland - Third Report of Session 2007-08.
http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.com/pa/cm200708/cmselect/cmscotaf/277/277.pdf
42. ibid. p.16
43. ibid. p.16
44. ibid. p.16
45. House of Commons Work and Pensions Committee. The best start in life? Alleviating deprivation, improving social mobility and eradicating child poverty. Second Report of Session 2007-8.http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200708/cmselect/cmworpen/42/4202.htm
46. DWPFamily Resources Survey - Households Below Average Income 2006/07 dataset
47. DWPFamily Resources Survey - Households Below Average Income 2006/07 dataset
48. Bradshaw, J., Middleton, S., Davis, A., Oldfield, N., Smith, N., Cusworth, L. and Williams, J. 2008. A minimum income standard for Britain: what people think. Joseph Rowntree Foundation.http://www.jrf.org.uk/knowledge/findings/socialpolicy/2244.asp
49. ibid. p.1
50. Sutherland, H., Evans, M., Hancock, R., Hills, J and Zantomio, F. 2008. The impact of benefit and tax uprating on income and poverty. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Essex University, LSE, University of Oxford, University of East Anglia
51. ibid. p. 2
52. ibid. p. 3
53. ibid. p. 52
54. ibid. p. 65
55. House of Commons Work and Pensions Committee. The best start in life? Alleviating deprivation, improving social mobility and eradicating child poverty. Second Report of Session 2007-8.http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200708/cmselect/cmworpen/42/4202.htm
56. ibid. p. 99
57. Department for Work and Pensions. 2007. Flexible New Deal evidence paper.http://www.dwp.gov.uk/welfarereform/readyforwork/flexible-new-deal.pdf
58. OECD. 2005. Chapter 3 - Employment Outlook 2005. Paris: OECD.
59. The Institute of Fiscal Studies website provides detailed discussions of the poverty trap and redistributive effects of tax system: http://www.ifs.org.uk/publications.php .
60. Bell, K., Brewer, M and Phillips, D. 2007. Lone parents working under 16 hours a week ('mini-jobs'). Joseph Rowntree Foundation. http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/2110-lone-parents-minijobs.pdf
61. ibid. p. 12
62. ibid. p. 12
63. House of Commons Work and Pensions Committee. The best start in life? Alleviating deprivation, improving social mobility and eradicating child poverty. Second Report of Session 2007-8.http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200708/cmselect/cmworpen/42/4202.htm
64. ibid. p. 92
65. House of Commons Work and Pensions Committee. The best start in life? Alleviating deprivation, improving social mobility and eradicating child poverty. Second Report of Session 2007-8. p 95 http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200708/cmselect/cmworpen/42/4202.htm
66. Finn, D., Mason, D., Rahim, N and Casebourne, J. 2008. Problems in the delivery of benefits, tax credits and employment services. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/2215-welfare-service-delivery.pdf
67. ibid. p. 21
68. National Audit Office ( NAO) 2007. HM Revenue and Customs 2006/07 Accounts: The Comptroller and Auditor General's Standard Report. Available at: www.nao.org.uk/publications/nao_reports/06-07/0607626.pdf
69. Cooke, G and Lawton, K. 2008. Working out of Poverty: A study of the low-paid and the 'working poor.IPPR
70. Citizens Advice Bureau ( CAB). 2007. Tax Credits: the current picture, CAB survey findings - advice week briefing, September 2007
71. Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman. 2007. Tax Credits: Getting it Wrong? Session 2006-2007, 5th Report
72. Finn, D., Mason, D., Rahim, N and Casebourne, J. 2008. Problems in the delivery of benefits, tax credits and employment services. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/2215-welfare-service-delivery.pdf
73. House of Commons Work and Pensions Committee. The best start in life? Alleviating deprivation, improving social mobility and eradicating child poverty. Second Report of Session 2007-8. p. 73http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200708/cmselect/cmworpen/42/4202.htm
74. House of Commons Work and Pensions Committee. The best start in life? Alleviating deprivation, improving social mobility and eradicating child poverty. Second Report of Session 2007-8.http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200708/cmselect/cmworpen/42/4202.htm , Bell, K., Brewer, M and Phillips, D. 2007. Lone parents working under 16 hours a week ('mini-jobs'). Joseph Rowntree Foundation
75. Refer to the earlier discussion of 'Financial disincentives' for further analysis
76. House of Commons Work and Pensions Committee. The best start in life? Alleviating deprivation, improving social mobility and eradicating child poverty. Second Report of Session 2007-8. p. 101 http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200708/cmselect/cmworpen/42/4202.htm
77. ibid. p 101
78. Hancock, R., Pudney, S., Barker, G., Hernadez, M and Sutherland, H. 2005. The take-up of multiple means-tested benefits by British Pensioners: Evidence from the Family Resources Survey. Fiscal Studies. Vol. 25, Issue 3, page 279 - 303.
79. Talbot, C., Adelman, L. and Lilly, R. 2005. Encouraging take-up: awareness of and attitudes to Pension Credit. Department for Work and Pensions.
80. Income Related Benefits Estimates Take-up in 2005-06. Department of Work and Pensions, 2007.
81. House of Commons Scottish Affairs Committee. 2008. Child Poverty in Scotland - Third Report of Session 2007-08.http://www.parliament.thestationeryoffice.com/pa/cm200708/cmselect/cmscotaf/277/277.pdf
82. Ibid. p. 8
83. Smith, N. and Middleton, S. (2007) A review of Poverty Dynamics Research in the UK. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. http://www.jrf.org.uk/bookshop/details.asp?pubID=900
84. ibid. p. 18
85. For more detailed analysis please refer to: House of Commons Scottish Affairs Committee. 2008. pp 26. Child Poverty in Scotland - Third Report of Session 2007-08.http://www.parliament.thestationeryoffice.com/pa/cm200708/cmselect/cmscotaf/277/277.pdf ; O'Connor, T.,G. and Scott, S. 2007. Parenting and Outcomes for Children, York, Joseph Rowntree Foundation; Hirsch, D. 2007. pp 10. Chicken and egg: child poverty and educational inequalities. http://www.cpag.org.uk/campaigns/education/EducationBriefing120907.pdf .
86. Scottish Government. 2008. Equally Well: Report of the Ministerial Taskforce on Health Inequalitieshttp://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2008/06/25104032/12
87. Robbie, K and Pressland, M. 2003. Mind the Gap: Experiences of Unemployed People with Mental Health Problems Moving into Work Briefing Paper 2003. Forth Sector: Edinburgh
88. Paull, G. 2008. Children and Women's Hours of Work. The Economic Journal. Vol, 118, p F8-F27 .
89. From the Labour Force Survey as presented in the Disability Rights Commission Disability Briefing May 2007, DRC, May 2007. http://www.leeds.ac.uk/disability-studies/archiveuk/DRC/DRC%20Disability%20Briefing%20May%202007.pdf
90. Laidler et al. 2007. Disability Review 2007. Leonard Cheshire Disability, November 2007. http://www.lcdisability.org/?lid=5964
91. From the Labour Force Survey as presented in the Disability Rights Commission Disability Briefing May 2007, DRC, May 2007. http://www.leeds.ac.uk/disability-studies/archiveuk/DRC/DRC%20Disability%20Briefing%20May%202007.pdf
92. where a 'disabled household' is a household with at least one disabled adult.
93. Equivalisation adjusts for household composition, to reflect the fact that households with more people, particularly young children, need more money to achieve a similar standard of living.
94. Often households with a disabled person receive additional support from the Government to help cover these costs, but this support may potentially raise their income above the poverty threshold.
95. Zaidi, A. and Burchardt, T. 2003. Comparing income when needs differ: Equivalisation for the extra costs of disability in the UK. Centre for Analysis of Social inclusion paper 64.http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/6373/
96. Kitchen, S., Michaelson, J. and Wood, N. 2005. 2005 Citizenship Survey: Race and Faith Topic Report. Department for Communities and Local Government. http://www.communities.gov.uk/publications/communities/2005citizenshipsurveyracefaith Note that this survey only covers England and Wales.
97. Equal Opportunities Commission Scotland. 2007. Moving On Up? The Way Forward. Report on the Investigation into Visible Minority Ethnic Women at Work in Scotland. Glasgow: EOC Scotland. http://83.137.212.42/sitearchive/eoc/Defaultbdae.html?page=18694&theme=print
98. Deakins, D., Ishaq, M., Smallbone, D., Whittam, G. and Wyper, J. 2005. Minority Ethnic Enterprise in Scotland: A National Scoping Study. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Social Research. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2005/06/20132742/27438
99. This data is based on the income of the highest earning member of a household and their spouse or partner. Religion is based on that of the highest earning member but their religion may have been recorded by another member of the household and the data must be interpreted with this in mind.
100. UNISON. 2005. Bargaining for lesbian, gay and bisexual workers' rights. http://www.unison.org.uk/acrobat/B1776.pdf
101. ibid. p. 1
102. ibid. p. 1
103. Stonewall. 1995. Information Bank - Employment - Discrimination. Found Online at: http://www.stonewall.org.uk/information_bank/employment/72.asp
104. Snyder, K. 2003 . Lavender Road to Success.UK: Ten Speed Press.
105. Scottish Transgender Alliance. 2008. Transgender Experiences in Scotland Research Summary: Key research findings of the Scottish Transgender Alliance survey of transgender people living in Scotland, Equality Network. http://www.scottishtrans.org/Uploads/Resources/staexperiencessummary03082.pdf
106. British Social Attitudes Survey - http://www.natcen.ac.uk/natcen/pages/or_socialattitudes.htm#bsa ,
107. Green, M. 2007. Voices of people experiencing poverty in Scotland Everyone matters? Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
http://www.jrf.org.uk/publications/voices-people-experiencing-poverty-scotlandand Burnett, L, 2006. Get Heard Scotland. Final Report. Glasgow: The Poverty Alliance referred to in Poverty Alliance Briefing - 8 Different in Scotland? Public Attitudes to Poverty A Discussion paper.http://www.povertyalliance.org/publications_detail.asp?pubs_id=18
108. Park, A., Phillips, M and Robinson, C. 2007. Attitudes to poverty: Findings from the British Social Attitudes Survey. Joseph Rowntree Foundation
109. Poverty Alliance Briefing - 8 D ifferent in Scotland? Public Attitudes to Poverty A Discussion paper.http://www.povertyalliance.org/publications_detail.asp?pubs_id=18
110. The Smith Institute. 2008. The Public Value of Social Housing: a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between housing and life chances.
111. Statistics on fuel poverty are produced regularly from the Scottish House Condition Survey and can be accessed from the website. The most recent is Scottish Government. 2008. Scottish House Conditions Survey: Key Findings 2007. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2008/11/26094921/0 .
112. Scottish Executive. 2002. The Scottish Fuel Poverty Statementhttp://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2002/08/15258/9951
113. The concept of fuel poverty is based on a theoretical calculation of how much it would cost to heat a dwelling according to a specified regime. It is therefore a composite of the level of energy efficiency of a dwelling, the level of income of the resident household and current fuel prices. Changes in any of these factors will affect fuel poverty numbers. Due to its modelled nature it does not address how much the household actually spends to heat the dwelling. In practice, householders may choose to heat their home differently from the specified regime. Technical details about the definition of fuel poverty can be found on the SHCS website. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2008/11/26094921/0 .
114. Scottish Government. 2008. Scottish House Conditions Survey Key Findings 2007. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2008/11/26094921/0