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Costs of Congestion: Literature Based Review of Methodologies and Analytical Approaches

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ANNEXE 2 MARGINAL COST OF CONGESTION - VALUES

Table B.1 - Comparison of studies - values

Study

Values Measured

Values in 2003 Prices Pence

Sansom et al. (2001)

Value Measured - Short run MEC: values without brackets are the low estimates & figures in brackets are high estimates.

Value Measured - Short run MEC: values without brackets are the low estimates & figures in brackets are high estimates.

Central London:
Motorways: 53.75
Trunk & Principal: 71.09
Other: 187.79

Outer London:
Motorways: 31.09
Trunk & Principal: 28.03
Other: 39.66

Outer Conurbation:
Motorways: 35.23
Trunk & Principal: 12.28
Other: 0.00

Urban 15-25 km2
Trunk & Principal: 7.01
Other: 0.00

Urban 5-10 km2
Trunk & Principal:2.94
Other: 0.00

Rural:
Motorway: 4.01
Trunk & Principal: 8.84
Other: 1.28

Inner London:
Motorways: 20.10
Trunk & Principal: 54.13
Other: 94.48

Inner Conurbation::
Motorways: 53.90
Trunk & Principal: 33.97
Other: 60.25

Urban>25 km2
Trunk & Principal:10.13
Other: 0.72

Urban 10-15 km2
Trunk & Principal: 0.00
Other: 0.00

Urban 0.01-5 km2
Trunk & Principal: 1.37
Other: 0.00

Central London:
Motorways: 57.08
Trunk & Principal: 75.49
Other: 199.41

Outer London:
Motorways: 33.01
Trunk & Principal: 29.77
Other: 42.11

Outer Conurbation:
Motorways: 37.41
Trunk & Principal: 13.04
Other: 0.00

Urban 15-25 km2
Trunk & Principal: 7.44
Other: 0.00

Urban 5-10 km2
Trunk & Principal:3.12
Other: 0.00

Rural:
Motorway: 4.26
Trunk & Principal: 9.00
Other: 1.36

Inner London:
Motorways: 21.34
Trunk & Principal: 57.48
Other: 100.33

Inner Conurbation::
Motorways: 57.24
Trunk & Principal: 36.07
Other: 63.98

Urban>25 km2
Trunk & Principal: 10.76
Other: 0.76

Urban 10-15 km2
Trunk & Principal: 0.00
Other: 0.00

Urban 0.01-5 km2
Trunk & Principal: 1.45
Other: 0.00

Unit - Per Car Unit Km (1998 prices & values - pence)

Unit - Per Car Unit Km

Notes to table
Source: Shires (2006)

Table B.1 - Comparison of studies - values (Contd)

Study

Values Measured

Values in 2003 Prices and Values - Pence

Newberry & Santos (2003)

Values Measured - MEC. 1 st figures calculated from Area Wide Speed-flow Curves; Figures in brackets calculated using Saturn.

Northampton: 495 (315)
Kingston Upon Hull: 209 (166)
Cambridge: 80 (71)
Norwich: 16 (14)
Lincoln: 78 (67)
York: 60 (44)
Bedford: 12 (11)
Hereford: 72 (57)
Unit-Per Car Unit Km (1998 prices & values-pence)

Values Measured - MEC. 1 st figures calculated from Area Wide Speed-flow Curves; Figures in brackets calculated using Saturn.

Northampton: 525.64 (334.50)
Kingston Upon Hull: 221.94 (176.28)
Cambridge: 84.95 (75.39)
Norwich: 16.99 (14.87)
Lincoln: 82.83 (71.15)
York: 63.71 (46.72)
Bedford: 12.74 (11.68)
Hereford: 76.46 (60.53)
Unit-Per Car Unit Km

Milne (2002)

Values Measured - MEC

Helsinki: 0.26
Edinburgh: 0.65
Salzburg: 0.92
Unit-Per Car Unit Km (1998 Prices & values-pence)

Values Measured - MEC

Helsinki: 0.28
Edinburgh: 0.69
Salzburg: 0.98
Unit-Per Car Unit Km

May et al. (2002)

Values Measured - MEC. 1 st best pricing based on Saturn.

Top 10 links with uniform charges: 0.80
Top 10 links with two levels of charges: 0.50 & 2.00

Unit-Per Car Unit/ Trip (2000 Prices- £s)
Values Measured - Judgemental Cordons.
Inner 1 - 0.50
Inner 2 - 0.75
Outer 1 - 2.25
Outer 2 - 0.75
Unit-Per Car Unit/ Trip (2000 prices & values- £s)

Values Measured - MEC. 1 st best pricing based on Saturn.

Top 10 links with uniform charges: 83 (7.9)
Top 10 links with two levels of charges: 52 & 208 (5.0 &19.8)

Unit-Per Car Unit/ Trip
Values Measured - Judgemental Cordons.
Inner 1 - 52 (5.0)
Inner 2 - 78 (7.4)
Outer 1 - 234 (22.3)
Outer 2 - 78 (7.4)

Unit-Per Car Unit/ Trip (Unit-Per Car Km)

Notes to table
Source: Shires (2006)

Table B.1 - Comparison of studies - values (Contd)

Study

Values Measured

Values in 2003 Prices Pence

Santos (2004)

Value Measured - MEC based on an optimal toll that maximises social surplus: defined as total utilities of all trips minus sum of total costs of all trips.

Northampton: 3.47
Kingston upon Hull: 3.73
Cambridge: 1.60
Lincoln: 1.07
Norwich: 0.80
York: 1.60
Bedford: 1.60
Hereford:1.60

Unit - Optimal Toll Per Car Unit/Trip (2002 prices & values- £) for a single cordon scheme.
Northampton: 2.40 & 2.40
Kingston upon Hull: 3.20 & 0.53
Cambridge: 0.80 & 2.67
Lincoln: 0.80 & 1.07
Norwich: 0.80 & 0.80
York: 1.07 & 1.33
Bedford: 2.7 & 2.40
Hereford:1.07 & 1.07
Unit - Per Car Unit/Trip (2002 prices & values- £) for a double optimal toll

Value Measured - MEC based on an optimal toll that maximises social surplus: defined as total utilities of all trips minus sum of total costs of all trips.

Northampton: 352 (33.5)
Kingston upon Hull: 378 (36.0)
Cambridge: 162 (15.4)
Lincoln: 108 (10.3)
Norwich:81 (7.7)
York: 162 (15.4)
Bedford: 162 (15.4)
Hereford: 162 (15.4)

Unit - Optimal Toll Per Car Unit/Trip (Per Car Unit Km)
Northampton: 243 & 243 (23.1 & 23.1)
Kingston upon Hull: 324 & 54 (30.9 &5.1)
Cambridge: 81 & 271 (7.7 & 25.8)
Lincoln: 81 & 108 (7.7 & 10.3)
Norwich: 81 & 81 (7.7 & 7.7)
York: 108 & 135 (10.3 & 12.9)
Bedford: 274 & 243 (26 & 23.1)
Hereford: 108 & 108 (10.3 & 10.3)
Unit - Per Car Unit/Trip (Per Car Unit Km)

Santos (1999)

Values Measured - MEC

Cambridge-Morning Peak: 61.4
Cambridge-Evening Peak: 51.0
York-Morning Peak: 48.9
York-Evening Peak: 49.9
York-Off Peak: 42.7
Unit-Per Car Unit Km (1996 prices & values-pence)

Value Measured - MEC

Cambridge-Morning Peak: 65.20
Cambridge-Evening Peak: 54.16
York-Morning Peak: 51.93
York-Evening Peak: 52.99
York-Off Peak: 45.34
Unit-Per Car Unit Km

Notes to table
Source: Shires (2006)