We are testing a new beta website for gov.scot go to new site

Costs of Congestion: Literature Based Review of Methodologies and Analytical Approaches

Listen

REFERENCES

Banister, D and Stead, D (2002) Reducing Transport intensity. EJTIR, 2, no.3/4, pp161-178

Bates, J. and Whelan, G.A. (2001) Size and Sign of Time Savings. Working Paper 561. Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Bickel, P., Burgess, A., Hunt, A., Laird, J., Lieb, C., Lindberg, G., Odgaard, T. (2005) State-of-the-art in project assessment. HEATCO (Developing Harmonised European Approaches for Transport Costing and Project Assessment) Deliverable 2. Institut für Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung, Universität Stuttgart. [website] http://heatco.ier.uni-stuttgart.de/ [file] hd2final.pdf

Bickel, P., Hunt, A., Laird, J., Lieb, C., Lindberg, G., Odgaard, T., Jong, de G., Mackie, P., Navrud, S., Shires, J. and Tavasszy, L. (2006) Proposal for Harmonised Guidelines. HEATCO (Developing Harmonised European Approaches for Transport Costing and Project Assessment) Deliverable 5. Institut für Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung, Universität Stuttgart. [website] http://heatco.ier.uni-stuttgart.de/ [file] hd2final.pdf

Bouladon, G. La Mobilité en Zone Urbaine: Apprendre l'Economie de Transport, Document diffusion restreinte, Direction de l'Environnement, OECD - European Conference of Ministers of Transport ( ECMT), Paris, 1991. Cited in Quinet (1994).

Bruzelius, N. (2001), The Valuation of Logistics Improvements in CBA of Transport Investments: A Survey. Report to the SAMGODS group, Swedish Institute for Transport and Communications Analysis ( SIKA).

Button, K. (1993) Transport Economics. 2 nd Edition, Edward Elgar, Aldershot.

CBI (1989) Trade Routes to the Future. London: Confederation of British Industry. Cited in Goodwin (2004).

CEC (2001) European transport Policy for 2020: time to decide. Com (2001) 370, Office for Official publications of European Communitites, Luxembourg

CEC (2001a) Renewed Sustainable Development Strategy. European Council DOC 10117/06

Department for Transport (2000) Tackling Congestion and pollution: the Government's first report. http://www.dft.gov.uk

Department for Transport (2000b). A measure of Road Traffic congestion in Englandhttp://www.dft.gov.uk

Department for Transport and Hedges, A (2001) Perceptions of Congestion: report on qualitative research findings. http://www.dft.gov.uk

Department for Transport, Hills, P, Schmoecker, J-D, May, T, Liu, R, Shepherd, S, Bates, J and Paulley, N (2001b) Analysis of congested networks. http://www.dft.gov.uk

Department for Transport (2001c) NTM Appendix 1 Description of other European National Transport Models. http://www.dft.gov.uk

Department for Transport (2003) The reliability sub-objective. TAG Unit 3.5.7. Web TAG guidance note. Department for Transport, London.
http://www.webtag.org.uk/webdocuments/3_Expert/5_Economy_Objective/3.5.7.htm

Department for Transport, Brownfield, J, Graham A, Eveleigh H, Ward H, Robertson S, Allsop R (2003b) Congestion and accident risk. Road Safety Research Report No. 44, DfT. http://www.dft.gov.uk

Department for Transport (2003c) The National transport model - detailed overview. http://www.dft.gov.uk

Department for Transport (2004) Feasibility Study of Road Pricing in the UK. Department for Transport, London.

Department for Transport (2005) Attitudes to congestion on motorways and other roads.http://www.dft.gov.uk

Department for Transport (2005b) FORGE The road capacity and costs model.http://www.dft.gov.uk

Department for Transport (2005c) Values of Time and Operating Costs. TAG Unit 3.5.6. Web TAG guidance note. Department for Transport, London. http://www.webtag.org.uk/webdocuments/3_Expert/5_Economy_Objective/3.5.6.htm

De Jong, G. Kroes, E., Plasmeijer, R. Sanders, P. and Warffemuis, P. (2004a) 'The value of reliability', Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2004.

De Jong, G., Bakker, S., Pieters, M. and Wortelboer-van-Donselaar, P. (2004b), 'New Values of Time and Reliability in Freight Transport in the Netherlands', Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2004.

de Palma, A. and Marchal, F. (2002), 'Real cases Applications of the fully Dynamic METROPOLIS Tool-box: an Advocacy for Global Large-scale Mesoscopic Transportation Systems', Networks and Spatial Economics 2(4) pp347-369

Dijker, T, Piet H.L, Bovy R and Vermijs, G.M.M (1998) Car following under non-congested and Congested conditions. Tran. Res. Record, Vol 1644, pp20-28.

Dings, J.T.W., Leurs, B.A., Hof, A.F., Bakker, D.M., Mijjer, P.H. and Verheof, E.T. (2002) Returns on Roads: Optimising Road Investments and Use with the User Pays Principle. CE, Delft.

Dodgson, J. and Lane, B. (1997) The Costs of Road Congestion in Great Britain: A NERA Briefing Paper. National Economic Research Associates ( NERA), London. http://www.nera.com/publication.asp?p_ID=752

Dodgson, J., Young, J. and J. van der Veer (2002), Paying for Road Use, Technical

Report, A report to the Commission for Integrated Transport, National Economic

Research Associates ( NERA), London, February. http://www.cfit.gov.uk/docs/2002/pfru/research/pdf/pfru-tech.pdf

ECMT (2003) Reforming transport taxes and charges. OECD Publications Service, Paris, France.

EU (2003) Information Society Technologies for Transport and Mobility Achievements and Ongoing Projects from the Fifth Framework Programme. http://cordis.europa.eu

Eliasson, J. (2004) 'Car drivers' valuations of travel time variability, unexpected delays and queue driving', Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2004.

Fowkes, A.S. (2001) Value of Time for Road Commercial Vehicles. ITS Working Paper 563, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, UK.

Glaister, S. (1981) Fundamentals of Transport Economics. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

Glaister, S. and Graham, D. (2003) Transport Pricing and Investment in England - Summary Report. Department of Civil Engineering, Imperial College, London.

Glanville, W.H. and Smeed, R.J. (1958) 'The basic requirements for the roads of Great Britain', Proceedings of Conference on the Highway Needs of Great Britain, 1957. London: Institution of Civil Engineers. Cited in Goodwin (2004).

Goodwin, P.B. (2004) The Economic Costs of Road Traffic Congestion. Discussion paper. Rail Freight Group, Transport Studies Unit, University College London. http://eprints.ucl.ac.uk/archive/00001259/

Graham, D.J. (2005) Wider economic benefits of transport improvements: link between city size and productivity, A report to the Department for Transport. DfT, London.

Graham, D.J. and Glaister, S (2004) Road traffic demand elasticity estimates - a review. Transport Reviews, Vol. 24, No. 3, 261-274

Grant-Muller, S (2005) Assessment Methodology report. Project deliverable- Report 203754_MM_003

Hamer, R., Jong, G. De, Kroes, E.P. (2005) The value of reliability in Transport - Provisional values for the Netherlands based on expert opinion. RAND Technical Report Series, TR-240- AVV, Netherlands.

Highways Agency, Scottish Office development department, The Welsh Office, The department of the Environment for Northern Ireland (1997) Design manual for Roads and Bridges, Traffic Flow Ranges for Use in the Assessment of New Rural Roads. DMRB, Vol 5, Section1, Part 3. http://www.highways.gov.uk/

Hills, P J and Gray, P (2000) Characterisation of congestion on an urban road network subject to road-use pricing - a fundamental review. Presented to IATBR 2000 conference at Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia

Kocak, N. (2005) TMfS Congestion maps [Website]. MVA Ltd, Edinburgh http://www.TMfS.org.uk

Kouwenhoven, M., Jong, G.C. de and Rietveld, P. (2005a) Reliability Ratio's voor het Goerderenveroer. Final report to AVV. RAND Technical Report Series, WR-274- AVV, Netherlands.

Laird, J.J., Nellthorp, J. and Mackie, P.J. (2005) Network effects and total economic impact in transport appraisal. Transport Policy 12, pp537-544.

Laird, J.J. (2006) Commuting costs and their impacts on wage rates. Whitehall Placement scheme final report, ITS

Link, H., Dodgson, J., Maibach, M. and Herry, M. (1999) The Costs of Road Infrastructure and Congestion in Europe. Springer Verlag.

Link, H. and Stewart-Ladewig, L. (2006) Report on the implementation of interurban case studies, REVENUE Project Deliverable 4, Funded by 5th Framework RTD Programme, ISIS, Rome.

Lumsden, K. (2005) 'Transport Model For Scotland'. Paper presented at the Scottish Transport Applications conference, 25 th April 2005 Glasgow Royal Concert Hall.

Mackie, P.J., Wardman, M., Fowkes, A.S., Whelan, G.A., Nellthorp, J. and Bates, J. (2003) Value of Travel Time Savings in the UK. A report to the Department for Transport. Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, UK.

May, A.D., Liu, R., Shepherd, S.P. and Sumalee, A. (2002a) The impact of cordon design on the performance of road pricing schemes. Transport Policy (9) pp209-220.

May A.D, Milne D.S., Shepherd S.P, Sumalee A (2002b),Specification of Optimal Cordon Pricing Locations and Charges, Transportation Research Record, No. 1812, p60-68

McQuaid, R.W., Greig, M. Smyth, A. and Cooper, J. (2004) The Importance of Transport in Business' Location Decisions. Report to the DfT. DfT, London.

Milne D (2002) Case Studies 7F - Urban Congestion CostsUNITE (UNIfication of accounts and marginal costs for Transport Efficiency) Working Funded by 5th Framework RTD Programme. ITS, University of Leeds, Leeds, June 2002.

Mohring, H. (1976) Transportation Economics. Cambridge, Mass: Ballinger.

MORI Scotland, TNS Social Research and Scottish Executive, Scottish Household Survey, 2003-2004 [computer file]. 3rd Edition. Colchester, Essex: UK Data Archive [distributor], December 2005. SN: 5020

Mumford, P. (2000) The Road from Inequity, Fairer Ways of Paying the True Costs of Road Transport. London: Adam Smith Research Institute. http://www.adamsmith.org/policy/publications/pdf-files/road-from-inequity.pdf

Nash (forthcoming) Transport Pricing a European perspective. ITS. University of Leeds

Newbery, D. (1988) 'Road User Charges in Britain'. Economic Journal, 98.

Newbery, D.M. (1995) Reforming Road Taxation The Automobile Association, Basingstoke. Cited in Goodwin (2004).

Newbery, D. and Santos, G. (2003), 'Area Speed-Flow Relationships and Urban Congestion Costs', presented at the International Symposium on the Theory and Practice of Congestion Charging, Imperial College London, August 18-20.

Noland, R.B. and Polak, J.W. (2002) 'Travel time variability: a review of theoretical and empirical issues' Transport Reviews 22(1) pp39-54

Ove Arup and Partners Ltd, Bates, J., Black, I. and Fearnon, J. (2003) Frameworks for modelling the variability of highway journey times. Report to the Department for Transport, UK.

Proost S., Van Dender K., De Borger B. et. al. (2002), How large is the gap between present and efficient transport prices in Europe?, in De Borger B., Proost S., eds., (2002), Reforming Transport Pricing in The European Union: A Modeling approach, EdwardElgar, 389-412

Quinet, E. (1994) 'The Social Costs of Transport: Evaluation and Links with Internalisation Policies'. In Internalising the Social Costs of Transport, Chapter 2, OECD - European Conference of Ministers of Transport ( ECMT), Paris, 1994, pp. 31-75.

Rice, P. and Venables, AJ (2004). Spatial Determinants of Productivity: Analysis for the Regions of Great Britain. Centre for Economic Performance Paper, 0642. London School of Economics, London.

Robinson, C. (2006) Delay per vehicle-kilometre in the TMfS [Computer file]. MVA Ltd, Edinburgh.

Rosenthal, S.S. and Strange, W.C. (2004) Evidence on the nature and sources of agglomeration economies. In Henderson, J.V. and Thisse, J.F. (eds) (2004) Handbook on Urban and Regional Economics Volume 4 Cities and Geography. Elsevier, Oxford.

Sansom, T, Nash, C.A., Mackie, P. Shires, J.D. and Watkiss, P. (2001) Surface Transport Costs and Charges: Great Britain 1998. Report for DETR.

Santos, G. (2000) 'Road Pricing on the basis of Congestion Costs: Consistent Results from Two Historic UK Towns'. Proceedings of 79 thTRB Annual Meeting, Transportation Research Record, 1732: pp25-31

Santos, G. (2004) 'Urban Congestion Charging: A Second Best Alternative'. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, Vol 38, Part 3, pp.345-369.

Schrank, D. and Lomax, T. (2005) The 2005 Urban Mobility Report, Texas Transportation Institute, The Texas A&M University System, http://mobility.tamu.edu

Scottish Executive (2005) Congestion on Scottish Trunk Roads 2003. Scottish Executive, Edinburgh. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/library5/transport/congestion-00.asp

Scottish Executive (2006) Scotland's National Transport Strategy: A Consultation. Scottish Executive, Edinburgh. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2006/04/20084756/0

Scottish Office (1998) Strategic Review of the Trunk Road programme in Scotland. The stationary office. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/library/documents

Shires, J. (2006) Road congestion review. Discussion note for GRACE project. Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds.

Standing Advisory Committee on Trunk Road Assessment ( SACTRA) (1999) Transport and the Economy, London: The Stationery Office.

Stateside Planning Scenario Synthesis. Transportation congestion measurement and management. Kentuky Transportation Centre, research report KTC-05-32/SPR303-05-iF

Steer Davies Gleave (2004) Effects of road congestion on rail demand: technical report. A report to PDFC.

Sumalee, A., May, A.D. and Shepherd, S.P. (2005). Comparison of judgmental and optimal road pricing cordons. Transport Policy, Volume 12, Issue 5 September 2005, pp384-390.

SUMMA (2004) Sustainable Mobility, policy Measures and Assessment..http://www.summa-eu.org/

Tapio, P (2005) Towards a theory of decoupling: degrees of decoupling in the EU and the case of road traffic Finland between 1970 and 2001. Transport Policy 12, pp137-151

Tight, M, Delle Site, P and Meyer-Ruhle (2004) Decoupling Transport from Economic Growth: Towards Transport Sustainability in Europe. EJTIR, 4, no.4, pp381-404

Trafficmaster (1996) Motorway Congestion Index. Trafficmaster Ltd, Cranfield, Bedfordshire.

Trafficmaster (1997) Motorway Congestion Index. Trafficmaster Ltd, Cranfield, Bedfordshire.

Tricker, R., Fereday, D., Pickup, L., Norheim, B., Bekken, J-T., Shepherd, S.P. , Laird, J.J., Nash, C.A. and Suchorzewski, W. Report on the implementation of urban case studies, REVENUE Project Deliverable 5, Funded by 5th Framework RTD Programme, ISIS, Rome, 16th January 2006.

Tweddle, G., Nellthorp, J., Sansom, T., Link, H., Stewart, L. and Bickel, P. (2003), " Pilot Accounts - Results for the United Kingdom", Annex 7 to "Deliverable D8 Pilot Accounts - Results for Tranche B Countries", UNITE Project (UNIfication of accounts and marginal costs for Transport Efficiency) Funded by the European Commission 5th Framework RTD Programme. ITS, University of Leeds.

Vandaele, E., Witlox, F. and Verleye, G. (2004), 'The Use of Correlation Analysis to Explain the Monetary Value of Quality Attributes of Transportation', Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2004.

Walters, A. (1961) 'The Theory and Measurement of Private and Social Cost of Highway Congestion'. Econometica, 29, 676-99.

Wang W, Chen, H. and Bell, M.C (2005) A Review of Traffic Incident Duration Analysis. Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology 5, pp.127-140

Wardman, M. (2001) 'A review of British evidence on time and service quality valuations'. Transportation Research Part E 37 pp 107-128.

Whelan, G.A. and Bates, J. (2001) Values of Time by Market Segment. Working Paper 565. Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.