This research project was commissioned by the Office of Chief Researcher and carried out by TNS System Three. Its aim was to track the prevalence of racist attitudes, behaviour and experience of racism among adults living in Scotland and evaluate the awareness and effectiveness of the latest phase of the One Scotland Many Cultures campaign among the target audience. The latest fieldwork, waves 6 and 7, took place in September 2005 and March/April 2006.
Advertising awareness and effectiveness
- Sixty percent of respondents were spontaneously aware of advertising on the subject of anti-racism at the latest wave (Wave 7), a level which was lower than the last time TV adverts were used as part of the campaign and shown on the main ITV channels at Wave 3 (68%).
- Spontaneously, half the sample (50%) recalled having seen advertising on TV at the latest wave, a figure which compares to 55% who recalled TV advertising at Wave 3. Nine percent recalled having heard a radio advert, compared to 12% at Wave 5 (the last time radio advertising was run).
- Message recall from the TV advertising was quite limited: one in five (20%) of those who had seen a TV advert, were able to recall any aspect of the advertising. The individual advert to be recalled at the highest level was Canada (19%), with less than 1% recalling either Different or Virus.
- Just over a third (36%) of those who had heard a radio advert were able to describe an aspect related to the latest campaign.
- Overall, 75% of the sample recognised at least one advert when prompted with the TV adverts Canada and Different and the radio advert, Xylophone. Canada recorded a reasonable level of reach, at 62% whilst the reach of Different was quite low (37%). Just over a quarter (26%) recalled having heard Xylophone.
- At a spontaneous level, 19% of all respondents described the slogan for the anti-racism campaign as 'One Scotland' and when prompted, this rose to 61%. The slogan 'No place for racism' is also starting to cut through (5% mentioning this spontaneously).
Attitudes to, and experience of racism
- The level of those regarding themselves as racist has changed very little across the waves, with 77% at the most recent wave regarding themselves as Not racist at all.
- The level of those exposed to racist behaviour increased to its highest level since tracking began at the latest wave, 42% claiming to have been exposed to any racist behaviour (as victim, witness, or perpetrator).
- Racism was perceived as less of a problem in Scotland at this latest wave, reaching the lowest level of those agreeing Strongly (7%).
- In terms of what constitutes racist behaviour, there has been a real movement over time in terms of the unacceptability of indirect verbal racist comments:
- Using terms such as 'Chinky' or 'Paki' in relation to food, shops etc continues to be perceived as being more racist than previously - 24% regarding it as strongly racist at Waves 5 and 7 compared to 18% at Wave 4;
- Speaking negatively about people from different ethnic backgrounds to your family or friends in private was also perceived as being more racist than previously - 32% now see it as Strongly racist compared to 27% at Wave 5 and indeed, 24% at Wave 4.
- Two new statements were added at Wave 6 and the majority regarded each of these as Strongly racist:
- Being verbally offensive to people from other ethnic backgrounds in person on account of their appearance or ethnicity (68% regarded as Strongly racist);
- Using violence towards people from other ethnic backgrounds or their property on account of their appearance or ethnicity (80% regarded as Strongly racist).
- A number of trends emerged at the latest wave in relation to attitudes, most of which would appear to be positive:
- People who come to live in Scotland from other ethnic and cultural backgrounds enrich Scottish society (62% agreement);
- People from minority ethnic backgrounds living in Scotland should do more to fit in with the Scottish way of life (76% agreement);
- Scottish people should do more to respect the different cultures of other ethnic groups who live here (74% agreement);
- People in Scotland ought to do more to stop racism occurring here (80% agreement).
- The final three statements would indicate that there is a feeling amongst the population that everyone has a role to play in making multiculturalism work in Scotland.