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Changing Our Ways: Scotland's Climate Change Programme

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Section 5: Developments at sector level

Introduction

5.1 This section begins with an overview of emission trends across the main sectors which contribute to GHG emissions in Scotland, before setting out the main policy developments within each sector. The following sectors are included:

  • energy;
  • transport;
  • agriculture, forestry and land use;
  • business;
  • the residential sector;
  • the public sector; and
  • waste management.

5.2 The structure for each sector is similar, beginning with a box highlighting key new commitments, presenting some background facts and figures, and then outlining the main policy developments since the introduction of the 2000 SCCP. Each sector ends with a route map setting out future actions and opportunities for integrating climate thinking into policy development. The route maps recognise that individual sectors are at different stages in their own policy development process.

Overview of emission trends at sector level

5.3 The contribution of each sector to Scottish emissions is shown below. The energy supply sector contributed 37% of emissions in 2003. The bulk of emissions in this sector are due to electricity generation and oil refining, which in turn supply power to other sectors such as residential, business and transport. With 17% of emissions, the transport sector was the second biggest contributor during 2003. Agriculture, business 13 and the residential sectors contributed 11-12% of emissions each. The pie chart on the right indicates that 16% of emissions are removed (via our carbon sink) due to Land Use Change and Forestry ( LUCF).

Contribution of each sector to Scottish GHG emissions in 2003 by GWP
Both pies represent 17.6 MtC - Scotlands GHG emissions in 2003 taking no account of removals.

Sources of emissions taking no account of removals

image of Sources of emissions taking no account of removals

Net emissions and removals

image of Net emissions and removals

5.4 Between 1990 and 2003 the major areas of Scottish emissions growth were in the energy supply (up 0.2 MtC) and the transport 14 sectors (up 0.18 MtC). The biggest fall in emissions was seen in the business sector, which contributed over half of the net fall since 1990 (down 1.52 MtC), largely due to structural change from the decline of heavy industry.

5.5 There were significant percentage reductions in the public and waste management sectors (down 48% and 51% respectively), as well as for non- CO 2 industrial emissions (down 72%). However, in absolute terms the impacts were limited as each of these sectors now contributes less than 2% of total Scottish emissions.

5.6 Across the UK, the biggest contributor to the fall in emissions was the energy supply sector (down by 11.4 MtC), closely followed by non- CO 2 industrial processes (down 10.6 MtC). Combined, these two sectors accounted for over 75% of the decline in UK emissions since 1990.

Breakdown of Scottish emissions by sector in 2003, and change from 1990

Sector

2003
emissions and removals ( MtC)

1990
emissions and removals ( MtC)

1990-2003
change in emissions and removals ( MtC)

1990-2003
% change

Energy

6.53

6.33

0.20

3%

Transport

2.99

2.82

0.18

6%

Business (includes industrial processes)

2.18

3.70

-1.52

-41%

Agriculture

2.07

2.44

-0.37

-15%

Residential

1.99

1.94

0.05

2%

LUCF emissions

1.41

1.45

-0.04

-3%

Public

0.27

0.52

-0.25

-48%

Waste

0.20

0.40

-0.20

-51%

Total emissions (excluding removals)

17.64

19.59

-1.95

-10%

LUCF removals

-2.75

-2.28

-0.46

20%

Total net emissions

14.89

17.31

-2.42

-14%

A cautious note - interpreting the figures

Care must be taken in interpreting the figures presented at sector level throughout Section 5. The emissions data are taken from the Inventory of GHGs which is compiled by the National Environmental Technology Centre (Netcen). This is published annually for the UK overall and disaggregated for each country within the UK. The latest disaggregated data for Scotland are for 2003. We also refer to energy data, the latest year for which is 2002, from the Scottish Energy Study, 15 published by the Executive in January 2006.

The Netcen inventories allocate emissions to each sector by source (eg emissions from a power station are allocated to the energy sector). The reporting methodology is in line with international requirements under the UNFCCC. The Energy Study is structured according to end users of energy (eg emissions from a power station are attributed to those who use the energy produced, such as householders and the public sector). The definitions of sectors used in the Inventory differ from those used in the Energy Study.

Because the Inventory reports emissions by source, it might show changes to direct emissions for particular sectors which are due to switches between type of fuel used rather than changes in energy consumption. For example, if a household switches from using oil to electricity, emissions in the residential sector would go down but emissions in the energy supply sector would increase. Therefore, not all of the emissions reductions from a particular sector as shown in the Inventory are necessarily the result of reduced consumption, but may result from a fuel switch, with emissions being transferred to the energy supply sector.

Further points to note in interpreting the data at sectoral level are highlighted where relevant throughout Section 5 and more detailed information is provided in Annex F.