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Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Drug Education in Scottish Schools

DescriptionA web only report accompanying Education Research Findings No 17
ISBN0 7559 2939 X
Official Print Publication Date
Website Publication DateMarch 02, 2007

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Martine Stead, Anne Marie MacKintosh, Laura McDermott and Douglas Eadie
Institute for Social Marketing, University of Stirling and The Open University

Morag Macneil, Robert Stradling and Sarah Minty
Rannsachadh Coimhearsnachd research consultancy and the School of Education, University of Edinburgh.

August 2005

ISBN 0 7559 2939 X (Web only publication)

This document is also available in pdf format (3MB)

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

PART A: METHODOLOGY

1.0 STUDY DESIGN

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Aims
2.2 Methods

3.0 SURVEY
3.1 Aims
3.2 Methods
3.3 Sample
3.4 Data Processing and Analysis

4.0 CLASSROOM OBSERVATION
4.1 Aims
4.2 Methods
.3 Sample
4.4 Analysis

5.0 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH WITH YOUNG PEOPLE
5.1 Aims
5.2 Methods
5.3 Sample
5.4 Analysis

PART B: SURVEY

1.0 DRUG EDUCATION IN SCOTTISH PRIMARY SCHOOLS
1.1 Sample Profile
1.1.1 School Characteristics
1.1.2 Respondents Characteristics
1.2 Provision Of Drug Education
1.3 Drug Education Delivery
1.3.1 Context of Drug Education Delivery
1.3.2 Persons Co-Ordinating and Delivering Drug Education
1.3.3 Continuity of Drug Education Delivery
1.4 Staff Development and Training in Drug Education
1.5 Perceptions of Drug Education within the School

2.0 DRUG EDUCATION IN SCOTTISH SECONDARY SCHOOLS
2.1 Sample Profile
2.1.1 School Characteristics
2.1.2 Respondent Characteristics
2.2 Provision of Drug Education
2.3 Drug Education Delivery
2.3.1 Context of Drug Education Delivery
2.3.2 Persons Co-Ordinating and Delivering Drug Education
2.3.3 Continuity of Drug Education Delivery
2.4 Staff Development and Training in Drug Education
2.5 Perceptions of Drug Education within the School

3.0 DRUG EDUCATION IN SCOTTISH SPECIAL SCHOOLS
3.1 Sample Profile
3.1.1 School Characteristics
3.1.2 Respondent Characteristics
3.2 Provision of Drug Education
3.3 Drug Education Delivery
3.3.1 Context of Drug Education Delivery
3.3.2 Persons Co-Ordinating and Delivering Drug Education
3.3.3 Continuity of Drug Education Delivery
3.4 Staff Development and Training in Drug Education
3.5 Perceptions of Drug Education within the School

PART C: CLASSROOM OBSERVATION

1.0 DRUG EDUCATION LESSONS IN CONTEXT
1.1 Background Factors
1.1.1 The classrooms used
1.1.2 Classroom suitability
1.1.3 Class size
1.1.4 Professionals delivering the lessons
1.2 Lesson Characteristics
1.2.1 Lesson length
1.2.2 Classroom ethos
1.3 Lesson Formats
1.3.1 Introducing the lessons
1.3.2 Lesson activities
1.3.3 Reviewing the lessons

2.0 DRUG EDUCATION PACKAGES AND RESOURCES
2.1 Packages in Use
2.1.1 Primary school packages
2.1.2 Packages used in both primary and secondary schools
2.1.3 Secondary school packages
2.2 How Packages Were Used
2.2.1 Local Authority use of packages
2.2.2 Use of published packages by age group
2.3 Other Resources Used
2.3.1 Schools'/teachers' own resource banks
2.3.2 Resources taken from published packages
2.3.3 Stand-alone resources
2.3.4 Types of resources supporting published package lessons

3.0 DRUG EDUCATION TOPICS
3.1 General Patterns
3.2 Age Ranges and Progression in Topic Coverage
3.3 Factors Influencing Topic Coverage
3.4 Coverage of Specific Drugs

4.0 TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS IN DRUG EDUCATION
4.1 General Patterns
4.2 Methods Employed with Different Year Groups and Age Ranges
4.3 Differentiation
4.4 Methods Used with Specific Packages

5.0 DRUG EDUCATION APPROACHES
5.1 General Patterns
5.1.1 Modes of delivery
5.1.2 Learning approaches
5.1.3 The relationship between modes of delivery and learning approaches
5.2 Approaches and Resources
5.2.1 Approaches used by teachers using published packages
5.2.2 Approaches by schools'/teachers' own resource banks

6.0 PUPIL RESPONSE TO THE LESSONS
6.1 Clarity of the Main Message
6.2 Perceptions of Pupils' Enhanced Understanding of Drugs
6.3 Keeping the Pupils Engaged
6.4 Pupil Response and Professionals Delivering Drug Education
6.5 Pupil Response and Teaching Methods Used
6.6 Pupil Response and Lessons Using Published Packages
6.7 Pupil Response and Approaches
6.7.1 Mode of delivery
6.7.2 Learning approaches

7.0 CONCLUSIONS AND ISSUES ARISING FROM THE OBSERVATIONS
7.1 Summary of Key Findings
7.2 Issues for Consideration

PART D: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

1.0 CONTEXT
1.1 Respondent Characteristics
1.2 School Characteristics
1.3 Perceptions and Experiences of School
1.3.1 General attitudes
1.3.2 Perceptions of what makes a good lesson/teacher
1.4 Perceptions and Experiences of Drugs
1.4.1 Primary school respondents
1.4.2 Secondary school respondents
1.4.3 School leavers
1.4.4 Perceptions of drugs within disadvantaged communities
1.4.5 Perceptions of drug users

2.0 RECALL AND PERCEPTIONS OF GUIDANCE AND PSHE
2.1 Recall of Guidance and PSHE
2.1.1 Health education at primary school
2.1.2 Guidance and PSHE at secondary school
2.2 Attitudes towards Guidance and PSHE

3.0 PERCEPTIONS AND EXPERIENCES OF DRUG EDUCATION
3.1 Extent and Coverage
3.2 Approach
3.2.1 Information provision
3.2.2 Social norms and social influences
3.2.3 Resistance
3.2.4 Harm reduction
3.3 Teaching Styles and Methods
3.3.1 Videos
3.3.2 Talks
3.3.3 Written work
3.3.4 Drama
3.3.5 Class discussions
3.3.6 Other methods

4.0 CREDIBILITY OF DRUG EDUCATION
4.1 People Teaching Drug Education
4.1.1 Teachers
4.1.2 External agents
4.2 Content
4.3 School Policies
4.4 Salience and Credibility of Drug Education in Comparison with Other Influences
4.4.1 Advertising
4.4.2 Friends
4.4.3 Parents
4.4.4 Real-life experiences

5.0 PERCEIVED IMPACT OF DRUG EDUCATION
5.1 Knowledge
5.2 Emotions, Values and Attitudes
5.3 Skills and Behaviour

6.0 RESPONDENTS' SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING DRUG EDUCATION
6.1 Greater Relevance
6.2 First-hand Accounts of Drug Use
6.3 More Interactivity
6.4 More Effective Use of Videos

7.0 CONCLUSIONS

APPENDICES
Appendix A: Observation Schedule
Appendix B: Post-Observation Proforma
Appendix C: Contextual Proforma
Appendix D: Qualitative Research Discussion Guide

ISM Institute for Social Marketing

A collaboration between the University of Stirling and The Open University

The views expressed in the report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the Scottish Executive or any other organisation(s) by which the author(s) is/are employed.

The Scottish Executive is making this research report available on-line in order to provide access to its contents for those interested in the subject. The Executive commissioned the research but has not exercised editorial control over the report.

This report is accompanied by "Research Findings No. 17: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Drug Education in Scottish Schools" and a Literature Review.

All are web only reports are were published by Information and Analytical Services Division, Scottish Executive Education Department, Victoria Quay, Edinburgh, EH6 6QQ. If you have any enquiries about these reports please contact the Dissemination Officer on 0131-244-0316.

The reports were published in March 2007.