The Collection of Road Accident Statistics, and examples of forms that could be used to collect the data
This Annex describes briefly the arrangements for collecting road accident statistics. It then provides examples of paper forms that could be used for collecting the data.
2. The collection of road accident statistics
The Road Accident statistics are compiled from returns made by police forces. For each injury road accident known to have occurred in their areas, the police authorities complete a statistical return (which is called a "Stats 19" return), which provides details of the accident circumstances, separate information for each vehicle which was involved in the accident, and separate information for each person who was injured in the accident. Examples of the kinds of forms that could be used for this purpose appear later. The illustrative "Stats 19" form shows the kinds of information that was collected in each year from 1999 to 2004 inclusively, following the implementation of the changes to the Road Accident Statistics system that were recommended in the 1997 Quinquennial Review. The forms do not show the information which has been collected since the start of 2005, following the implementation of the changes recommended in the 2002 Quality Review. (see Annex C).
The statistical returns cover all accidents in which a vehicle is involved that occur on roads (including footways) and result in death or personal injury, if they become known to the police. It should be noted that the vehicle need not be moving, and need not be in collision - for example, the returns include accidents involving people alighting from buses. Road accidents in which no-one is injured ("damage only" accidents) are not included in this definition, so the Scottish Executive does not receive any statistics of such accidents, and this publication cannot give any figures for them.
Full guidance on the completion of the "Stats 19" statistical returns, including detailed notes and definitions of the coverage of the returns and of the information to be provided in each field, is given in a document produced by the Department for Transport (DfT), called "Instructions for the Completion of Road Accident Reports" (which is also referred to as the "Stats 20").
The returns for accidents in Scotland are submitted every month by the police authorities, either directly or with the assistance of a local Council, to the Scottish Executive. All the returns should first be subject to the validity and consistency checks specified in a document called "Procedures for Submitting Road Accident Data to The Scottish Executive". This document is also referred to as the Scottish Edition of "Stats 21". The Scottish Executive also applies these checks, and clears any errors that it finds with the police. The returns are added to the Scottish Executive Transport Statistics branch's database, which contains statistical information about all injury road accidents in Scotland since 1979.
The Transport Statistics branch's records for accidents which occurred on Motorways and A roads are copied to the Trunk Road Management and Maintenance Directorate of Transport Scotland, which maintains a database of information about trunk roads. From all the Motorway and A road accidents, the ones which occurred on trunk roads are identified using their road numbers and their grid co-ordinates, and the information about them is put onto the Trunk Road Management and Maintenance Directorate database. The Transport Statistics branch is subsequently informed which of these accidents occurred on trunk roads, and its database is updated accordingly.
Similar returns are made throughout Great Britain. The Scottish Executive sends a copy of the Scottish data to DfT, which holds a database of accident records for the whole of Great Britain.
Copies of the "Stats 19" illustrative forms (see below) the "Stats 20" and "Stats 21" documents, a detailed list of all changes made at the start of 2005, and other documentation are available from the Scottish Executive Transport Statistics Web site: go to: www.scotland.gov.uk/transtat and look under "Methods and Background".
3. Examples of forms that could be used to collect the data for 1999 to 2004, inclusive
This Annex provides examples of paper forms that could have been used to collect the data for the road accident statistics for 1999 to 2004, inclusive. Two types of form are shown:
a. the illustrative "Stats 19" form - this shows only the information which is collected for national statistical purposes;
b. an example of a more sophisticated form, which was developed by Middlesex University - this shows both the information needed for national statistical purposes and examples of the kinds of other details which may be obtained for local use.
In both cases, separate pages are used for information about the Attendant Circumstances, the Vehicles involved and the Casualties. For example, the illustrative "Stats 19" form has a separate page for each Vehicle and a separate page for each Casualty. The "Middlesex University" form can hold details of two Casualties on one page, and details of two Vehicles (side by side) spread over two pages. What is sometimes referred to as an "accident book" would contain a number of such pages (when an accident involves more vehicles or more casualties than the book allows for, the officer can attach extra pages for the other vehicles and casualties). The "Middlesex University" form's pages differ in size, so that one can turn quickly to a particular page of the accident book.
In practice, each Police Force uses its own system, which often involves the information being keyed into a computer by the officer, or by the clerical staff whom the officer telephones to report the accident, rather than the use of paper forms. However, some police forces have recorded the information required for statistical purposes using forms which were, for example:
a. based on the illustrative "Stats 19", with slight modifications to include boxes to collect additional information for local use, such as codes for the reporting officer, the Police beat on which the accident occurred, and the school attended (if a casualty was a school pupil en route to or from school); or
b. in effect, a data preparation coding form with ( e.g.) boxes for all the statistical information about the Attendant Circumstances, up to three Vehicles and up to four Casualties, and some information for local use, all on one double-sided A4 sheet. Anyone completing such a form would have to refer to a separate document for details of the codes for variables such as "Road Class", "Type of Vehicle" and "Pedestrian Location".
As well as such forms, the Police Force would, of course, hold other information about the accident (for example, in the officer's notebook, reports and administrative records).
4. The illustrative "Stats 19" form for 1999 tp 2004, inclusive
The first three pages of forms in this Annex together make up the illustrative "Stats 19" form. As mentioned above, this shows only the information that was collected for the national road accident statistics for 1999 to 2004, inclusive - i.e. just those details which were included in the statistical returns made to the Scottish Executive's Transport Statistics branch. Each variable has a reference number ( e.g. 1.7 for the "Date" on the Attendant Circumstance form; 2.5 for the "Type of Vehicle" on the Vehicle form), which identifies the relevant section in the "Stats 20" Instructions for the Completion of the Road Accident Reports. There are some gaps in the sequence of numbers, which correspond to variables which are no longer part of the statistical returns - for example, "1.8" was used for "Day of Week", until this was dropped from the returns with effect from the start of 1994. A new version of the form is produced once the recommendations of each Quality Review (or, formerly, Quinquennial Review) have been finalised, to show the information that will be required for the national statistics once the changes take effect. The version shown here is the one that applied for the years from 1999 to 2004, inclusive. It is labelled "STATS19 (1999)" because it came into effect at the start of 1999 (" DETR", " SO" and " WO" are the departmental names of that time).
5. The "Middlesex University" form
The form shown on the remaining pages of this Annex was developed by Middlesex University, as part of a research project "The Development of Improved Methods for Representing Road Accident Data", funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. Two of the three objectives of the research were:
a. to define the accident attributes required for the more effective diagnosis and design of accident remedial schemes and to integrate these with the data required for the compilation of national accident statistics; and
b. to investigate methods of data collection and to design a police accident report form which includes the required attributes and reflects an intuitive perception of the causes of particular accidents.
The researchers surveyed Police Forces, found out about their methods of data collection, assessed the kinds of forms used, identified a number of deficiencies in their design, and developed the form which appears here. This was used on a small-scale trial basis by some officers in eight Police Forces: many found the form easy to complete once they were familiar with it. The researchers concluded that it would be difficult to produce a single form that satisfied the requirements of each police force, but forms based on sound principles of graphic design would be easier to complete and less prone to errors.
The researchers also considered an electronic version of the form, for use on a secure Intranet using World Wide Web technology, which was designed to be "independent of platform", relatively easy to produce, and to include data validation and "help" menus.
The "Middlesex University" form shows the kinds of information that may be collected for local use - for example, on the first of the "Vehicle" pages, there are boxes for the officer to tick to indicate whether the driving licence, insurance certificate, etc are in order; there is a page for witness statements; and so forth.
We are grateful to the researchers for permission to reproduce the form. For further information about the research project, the paper form, the electronic version, or subsequent Middlesex University work on this and related matters, please contact:Professor Chris Wright
Transport Management Research Centre
London NW4 4BT
Tel (direct line): 020 8411 5259
Information about other related work by Middlesex University is available at: http://www.mdx.ac.uk/www/roadtraffic/welcome.htm