1. This Planning Advice Note ( PAN) accompanies SPP17 Planning for Transport. Reference should be made to SPP17 for guidance on policy.
2. Delivery of Scottish Executive policy depends, to a large extent, on action at the local level. The PAN provides good practice guidance which planning authorities, developers and others should carry out in their policy development, proposal assessment and project delivery. The document aims to create greater awareness of how linkages between planning and transport can be managed. It highlights the roles of different bodies and professions in the process and points to other sources of information.
3. The information provided and the examples given in this PAN are not exhaustive. It is intended to be used as an initial reference point. Local flexibility, appropriate to particular circumstances, would be appropriate.
4. Annex A provides links to useful data sources. The remaining annexes are summaries of recent research findings and provide more detailed information on topics covered.
5. The aim of Scottish Ministers is to create an accessible Scotland which has a safe, reliable and sustainable transport system 1. Integration is key to delivery. The integration of land use planning with transport, taking account of environmental aims and policies, and policies on economic growth, education, health 2 and the objective of a fairer, more inclusive society, is crucial. Planning authorities should identify relevant national and stakeholder strategies and consider their co-ordination.
6. One focus of SPP17 is to achieve better and earlier integration between transport and land use planning at national, regional and local level. Integration can reduce the need to travel and offer more sustainable travel choices. To achieve sustainable development the objectives of SPP17 must be considered in the context of other planning policy and guidance.
7. The intention is for new developments to be user focused and for the transport element to promote genuine choice, so that each mode contributes its full potential and people can move easily between different modes. Consideration should be given to freight logistics as well as person travel.
8. Effective working practice involves different professions understanding and working with one another, either within or outwith planning. Land use planners and transport professionals should work together to develop complementary and co-ordinated policies and proposals which contribute to integration within and between different modes of transport.
9. Table 1 is a generalised indication of the statutory and non-statutory responsibilities of key stakeholders. For policies and proposals to be successful in practice, a willingness to work together across the range of interests is essential.
Table 1. Generalised Responsibilities.
Development Policy Planner
Development Management Planner
Transport Planner / Engineer
Regional Transport Strategy
Regional partnership e.g. SESTRAN
Transport Planner / Engineer
Local Transport Strategy
Trunk Road Network Management
Scottish Executive Transport Group
Public transport strategy and project delivery
West Central Scotland
Planning and Transport Consultants
Advice & information to individual clients
Transport Strategies 4
10. The 4 regional transport partnerships across Scotland have all developed transport strategies covering their region. These are the product of voluntary joint working between local authorities (including SPT in the west of Scotland) and other stakeholders. Following the Transport White Paper, strategic regional transport partnerships covering the whole of Scotland have been proposed 5. Regional Transport Strategies will take a strategic approach to transport across the region. They should be closely related to local transport strategies and to structure and local plans 6.
11. Local Transport Strategies ( LTSs) are not statutory, but all local authorities have chosen to produce one. They set out the local authority's objectives, strategies and implementation plans for transport in their area. They should be consistent with the latest guidance from the Scottish Executive Transport Group, SPP17 and up to date development plan policies. They should also closely relate to strategies produced by regional transport partnerships.
12. Development plan policy has a role in implementing transport strategy while transport strategy should take account of development plan commitments. Transport strategies and development plan policies should therefore be developed having regard to one another.
13. The strategic aims of policy need to be implemented by influencing the attitude and behaviour of every individual. Policy development and implementation can be informed and achieved by targeting the reasons why people travel, the mode by which they have the opportunity to travel and their travel preferences and behaviour.
14. A number of practical measures, both qualitative and quantitative, can be used to deliver successful transport outcomes. This PAN provides examples of good practice guidance on these measures through publicising recent research.
Associated Regulatory Mechanisms
15. Transport aspects of land use planning will also need to have regard to:
- Air quality regimes: the National Air Quality Strategy; the statutory air quality objectives; and designated air quality management areas.
- Noise quality regimes: the noise impact of new transport infrastructure on existing land uses and any noise constraints that existing transport infrastructure impose on new development should be taken into account in development management decisions supported by general policies in development plans.
- Water quality regimes: SEPA have lead responsibility for sustainable urban drainage ( SUDs) techniques. These should be used for handling run-off from built development including transport infrastructure in such a way as to protect the quality of watercourses and the aquatic environment. Land use aspects should be reflected in development plans.
- Road traffic reduction targets and safety concerns for all transport users.
- Landscape quality: land use and transport planning should take into account impacts on landscape and use of the countryside.
16. The early involvement of interested parties will positively inform transport planning by building consensus and minimising potential future areas of objection. Consultation and feedback to those who have contributed is crucial. Co-operation is the responsibility of ALL groups. In addition to those listed above, other groups may include:
- Other relevant internal and external local authority departments;
- Local authority consortia i.e. Regional Transport Partnerships;
- Freight Transport Association / Hauliers;
- Strategic Rail Authority 7;
- Rail and bus operators;
- Ferry operators;
- Transport user groups;
- British Waterways, port and airport operators;
- Special purpose implementation bodies e.g. Transport Initiatives Edinburgh ( TIE);
- Local business communities;
- Urban designers;
- Disability groups;
- National and area based environmental organisations e.g. SNH;
- National Park Authorities.
17. Modelling is usually undertaken by transport planners in policy development and assessment of proposals. Modelling can assist decision making by basing projections on quantitative data and it can be used for different types of assessment, for example mode choice, trip generation and land use interactions.
18. Joint transport and land use models are being developed which dynamically represent the interaction between transport changes and land use patterns rather than simply requiring land use data as a manual model input. These models, if used with care, can be very useful in strategic land use planning. In simple terms they use modelled transport outcomes to generate elements of future year land use planning data.
19. A number of Scottish transport models already exist. These range from strategic models covering large areas to relatively small but detailed single junction simulation models. The Transport Model for Scotland ( TMfS) is a strategic level model now available for use by local authorities. It covers 90% of Scotland's population, including the central belt and up to and including Aberdeen. It is related to the TELMOS model which uses an economic land use model input, covers the whole of Scotland and contains planning data from all 32 planning authorities.
20. The intermediate level of models are the more detailed transport assignment models, such as the Saturn type model. At the most detailed level are the micro-simulation models, for example PARAMICS.
21. Analysis of the existing situation or base case is a crucial element in understanding and influencing change in the type of journeys people take and how they make them. It provides a benchmark against which future options can be measured. In developing their policies planning authorities should have regard to the following mechanisms and factors.
Accessibility Analysis 8
22. Good accessibility will be achieved where many people are linked to opportunities by networks of regular, reliable and affordable travel. Accessibility analysis is a useful technique in assessing development as it focuses on individual travel rather than on different transport modes. It can be used as an alternative or alongside other techniques to underpin policy development and to inform mode share targets for individual proposals. It allows the quantitative consideration of links between transport and other issues and helps to ensure that the most efficient resource allocation is made to focus development in sustainable locations. The science of logistics incorporates accessibility analysis for freight movements. Further information on the implementation of personal accessibility analysis (approaches, features and examples) is given in annex B.
Location Policy 9
23. In development planning, and for developers choosing sites for proposals, the starting point should be Scottish Planning Policy. Sites which do not conform to the relevant SPP are unlikely to be sustainable transport accessible sites. Within that framework, the assessment of accessibility by different modes should ideally be undertaken for a number of possible sites before decisions are made on possible locations and site layouts.
24. Development plan policy should encourage development of significant travel generating proposals at locations which are key nodes on the public transport network, that have a potential for higher density development and a potential for mixed use development with an emphasis on high quality design and innovation. These locations should encourage modal shift of people and freight by providing good linkages to rail, walking and cycling networks and with vehicular considerations, including parking, having a less significant role. Mixed use development, for example the inclusion of local shops and services within larger housing developments, can encourage multi-purpose trips and reduce overall distances travelled by car by bringing together related land uses.
25. Planning authorities, through development plan policy, should give greater recognition to the potential of sites where accessibility can be improved by developer or public funding. Advantages can be gained by different interest groups including greater accessibility for employees and service industries, a reduction in congestion and the stabilisation of traffic growth creating good conditions for further investment. Assessment of such locations should be based on comparative analyses of accessibility together with an assessment of other land uses and local plan policies. During the assessment process planning authorities must be aware of the realities of local economic and social conditions relating to development.
26. Key locations designated in development plans should aim to be destinations in their own right, with a sense of place created through an emphasis on quality. Urban design is a crucial aspect of placemaking 10. Designation of such locations will identify opportunities and give confidence to stakeholders.
Mode Share Targets ( MSTs) 11
27. Depending on the intrinsic accessibility of a location or wider area, measured using accessibility analysis, and based on the sustainable transport objectives of the authority, an assessment can be made of desirable mode shares for transport movements to and from that location or area. In order to meet the objectives of that assessment, mode share targets can be set for a given time period. Targets which promote modal shift are valuable in encouraging developers and operators to look innovatively at possibilities for increasing accessibility. The Transport Assessment process should then establish ways to accommodate or mitigate the impacts of less sustainable transport modes in order to meet the mode share targets. Further information is provided in annex C.
28. Mode share targets are applicable to new development, change of use proposals and extensions to existing developments. They can be set for:
- The authority area as a whole, a sub-area and for categories of development as specified by the authority.
- Any large new re/development area where there is a design statement 12 planning brief or master plan.
- Any development for which a travel plan is required.
29. 'No-net-detriment' is a useful aim in setting mode share targets. No-net-detriment means for example, no net increase in travel time or risk of accident as a result of the development. More restrictive targets are however desirable, for example an increase in public transport mode share over a given period.
30. Parking policies should support the overall locational policies in the development plan. The availability of parking, for both cars and cycles, influences the choice of transport. Parking policies must be handled sensitively and adapted to particular local circumstances, for example through the development of a local authority's own maximum and optional underpinning minimum parking standards.
31. The method for deriving the standards should consider local characteristics, including:
- Accessibility analysis, particularly by non-car modes;
- Economic development factors, in terms of levels of activity;
- Levels and targets for walking and cycling;
- Levels of car ownership, use and movement patterns;
- Need for traffic restraint;
- Potential over-spill impacts;
- Neighbouring authorities' standards;
- Availability of alternative parking (on and off street); and
- Potential for shared use of spaces.
32. For implementation at a local level a zonal approach is recommended. Measures that can influence parking can include:
- A maximum number of parking spaces being provided, underpinned where appropriate by a minimum to avoid undesirable off-site overspill parking;
- On site parking charges / permits to discourage long term parking;
- Parking located closer to the building for short stay, mobility impaired and late night / shift work;
- Dual use car parks serving both new stores and wider town centres;
- Encouragement of car-sharing by using a database and preferential parking spaces;
- Establishment of car sharing or a car pool;
- Complementary restrictions, i.e. on-street restrictions in the surrounding area;
- Secure, covered cycle parking.
33. Monitoring of use and effects is important after implementation. This should take account of experience, evolving objectives and changing patterns of characteristics. A review of standards should be undertaken at intervals no greater than 5 years. Any changes in car parking policies should not impact negatively on spaces allocated for disabled people, parents and children and car sharing schemes.
34. All new and re-development proposals should be designed for safety and the convenience of all users. Good design and layout of a development can significantly improve the ease of access by non-car modes, for example:
- Entrances to be as close as possible to pedestrian routes and bus stops; and
- Links to cycle networks, with secure parking near the main entrance.
35. Proposals should be specifically tailored to local circumstances, aspirations and priorities, for example speed management strategies, attractive green space and landscaping, in order to bring a wide range of social and community benefits and improve quality of life. Design of public transport facilities should be user friendly and attractive as well as functional to encourage and retain modal shift. Consideration should also be given to the opportunities afforded by mobile and broadband communication to enable substitution of choices, for example home working.
36. The Dutch Home Zones (Woonerfen) are a leading example of the use of design measures to integrate transport and land use 13. In Britain Home Zones heve evolved in the context of regeneration projects, though the general design principles are also relevant to and more easily applied to the design of new housing layouts 14. Local authorities can assist in such initiatives with the production of design guides, local design statements and development briefs.
37. Schemes in committed programmes and/or those at an advanced stage of preparation, where work is expected to commence within the plan period, should be included in the local plan proposals maps. This will include schemes upon which the development strategy depends even if the method of funding is uncertain at the outset. Other schemes should merit only a description in the text, the level of detail dependent on the degree of commitment.
38. Safeguarding for transport schemes where proposals are now unlikely to be taken forward should be removed, thus removing the effects of blight. This is especially important for proposals, such as major road widening, which affect large numbers of existing properties. Clearly, any significant development proposals which were dependent on the scheme will have to be reviewed and alternative transport arrangements made.
39. Decisions made in respect of specific planning proposals should aim to put into practice the policies of SPP17. The following section provides good practice advice on some practical mechanisms to achieve successful outcomes.
40. SPP17 requires a transport assessment to be produced for significant travel generating developments. Transport Assessment is a tool that enables delivery of policy aiming to integrate transport and land use planning. Reference should be made to "Transport Assessment and Implementation: A Guide" for detailed information on this process 15. Further information is also given in annex D.
41. All planning applications that involve the generation of person trips should provide information which covers the transport implications of the development. The level of detail will be proportionate to the complexity and scale of impact of the proposal. This will provide an indication of whether a transport assessment should be carried out. As a change of use could result in different travel characteristics a transport assessment should be requested where the change is likely to result in a material change in trips. For smaller developments the information on transport implications will enable local authorities to monitor potential cumulative impact and for larger developments it will form part of a scoping exercise for a full transport assessment. Development applications will therefore be assessed by relevant parties at levels of detail corresponding to their potential impact.
Travel Plans 16
42. Travel Plans are documents that set out a package of positive and complementary measures for the overall delivery of more sustainable travel patterns for a specific development. Their ability and success in influencing travel patterns is dependent upon the commitment of the developer and occupier of a development. Travel plans should be implemented to encourage a shift in transport mode for those travelling to and from a development. More detailed information on travel plans is provided in annex E.
43. Travel plans have been demonstrated to be applicable to a wide range of establishments, such as schools, businesses, hospitals and airports, and their various travel requirements, for example staff travel, customer / visitor travel, business travel and freight and logistics. These should specifically consider travel for those whose mobility is impaired. For residential land uses, travel plans may set out measures which will be used as an incentive to house purchasers to use non-car travel modes, but setting targets is generally not practicable for this land use. Sustainability in housing should come through design in relation to walking, cycling and public transport networks.
44. It is recommended that the appropriate use of travel plans should be determined by considering the potential contribution a development can make to sustainable travel. All applications meeting the threshold for a transport assessment should require a travel plan; developments below the threshold may nevertheless contribute to sustainable travel. As planning applications can be submitted as detailed or in outline it is recommended that travel plans should also follow a two stage process. A travel plan framework should be agreed at the planning application stage.
45. Where the occupier is speculative or unknown the planning conditions which would be associated with the travel plan should include physical / infrastructure facilities to encourage walking and cycling, for example adequate storage provision, showering facilities, links to wider walking and cycling networks and possible provision of additional public transport facilities. The plan at this stage should concentrate on output measures e.g. the number of trips by different modes that can be accommodated on the network. Any outline permission given should pass on the commitment to develop a full travel plan to the end user and enable future development and modification of the travel plan.
46. Where the occupier is known measures should be more robust. The travel plan should incorporate a variety of measures and targets to encourage sustainable travel, such as MSTs, an implementation time scale and an agreed monitoring and review process. The setting up of a working group to oversee the travel plan is also encouraged, as is a trust fund for additional remedial measures if targets of the plan are not met.
47. If the planning authority is minded to grant consent for a development proposal which will be supported by a travel plan, a detailed indication of the contents of the travel plan should be submitted along with the planning application. This would include a statement of commitment, intentions for the survey, targets and basic measures and monitoring procedures.
48. To ensure compliance with targets, 'correction procedures' should be incorporated into the section 75 legal agreement. The consequences of not meeting the targets set should be agreed and defined clearly in any agreement. They may take the form of remedial action or may be related to suspensive conditions on further development related to the proposal. The procedures should always be specific to the development proposal, to which the travel plan relates.
49. The monitoring of the operation and implementation of a travel plan are key elements. Monitoring should not be an afterthought but incorporated into the design of the travel plan from the outset to ensure efficient and consistent review of the process. Those carrying out the monitoring should be identified in the means by which the travel plan is enforced: the condition to the planning consent or the section 75 planning agreement. Monitoring should commence from the occupation of the development and be an on-going process leading to an annual review and update of the travel plan. It should be in line with the review of the Local Transport Strategy.
Planning Agreements 17
50. Planning agreements can be used to overcome obstacles to the grant of planning permission. By securing developer contributions, proposals can be made acceptable in land use and transport terms, for example through the provision of public transport infrastructure.
51. Conditions, possibly suspensive conditions, can be applied in respect of those aspects of the transport assessment which represent physical transport infrastructure to be undertaken as part of the overall development e.g. footpath and cycle access, bus laybys, parking for disabled people. Section 75 agreements can be used where funding is essential for less directly linked infrastructure e.g. improvements to the surrounding public road network, part funding of a new rail station. A requirement to create a travel plan for end users can take the form of a condition on the planning consent or be specified within a section 75 agreement. If an agreement is to be used, it must relate to a travel plan that is in all its essentials defined as part of the planning application, as the agreement will form part of the consent granted. The agreement will then be recorded in the Register of Sasines or the Land Register and will be a burden on the land, regardless of the occupier, unless discharged by agreement. This will ensure that it is legally binding on subsequent holders of title in terms of its definition, application and implementation, monitoring and review.
52. Using an agreement in this way need not mean that the travel plan is a fixed document. When the intention is to influence occupiers' behaviour to achieve sustainable travel objectives, the travel plan has to be capable of being changed in relation to monitoring. So the original travel plan should set objectives and targets, focus on outcomes in terms of mode share and traffic volumes, and define the best estimate at the outset of what measures are required to achieve these objectives. But it should also define what action will be required if reality diverges from the desired outcomes, and what mechanisms will be used to revise proposals to achieve the objectives. The agreement will therefore be a combination of developer measures, statements of what they are expected to achieve, and understandings of what action will be required to correct divergence.
53. Circular 15/1999 explains The Environmental Impact Assessment (Scotland) Regulations 1999. The regulations apply to projects which require planning permission, certain trunk road projects comprising construction and improvement authorised under the Roads (Scotland) Act 1984, and drainage works authorised under the Land Drainage (Scotland) Act 1958.
54. Schedule 1 projects (including motorways, lines for long distance railway traffic and aerodromes with a runway length of 2100 m or more) are always required to follow the environmental impact assessment procedures. For other transport projects which are listed in Schedule 2 (including a road, an aerodrome, canalisation, a tramway, elevated or underground railways, or a modification to a Schedule 1 development) EIA will be required if the project is likely to have significant environmental effects. If a project requires an EIA under the Regulations, any permitted development rights are withdrawn and planning permission must be sought.
55. A further Directive 2001/42/ EC on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment (commonly referred to as the Strategic Environmental Assessment ( SEA) Directive) applies to development plans and programmes from 21 July 2004. Technical and informal queries may be directed to SEPA, SNH and Historic Scotland and all other queries, including those relating to screening and scoping procedures should be directed to the SEA team within the Scottish Executive 18.
PROJECTS AND PROPOSALS
Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance19
56. It is a requirement of the Scottish Executive that all transport related projects which require its approval or for which it provides funding shall be appraised in accordance with the Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance: STAG (except for projects which were before Scottish Ministers before July 2001).
57. It is recommended to local authorities and consultants that STAG is used for the appraisal of transport projects for which they have responsibility. It should be used by all organisations developing transport projects or policies for all types and sizes of transport planning exercises, from the development of a rural bus scheme to a multi-modal corridor study.
58. STAG provides a comprehensive source of advice on all aspects of the project development process from the earliest stages, through appraisal and implementation to ex-post evaluation. STAG sets out required practice. It is therefore to be used as a first reference point when commencing an appraisal of potential transport developments. It is intended that transport appraisal techniques will continue to develop over time. It is therefore expected STAG will be updated periodically.
59 Significant development proposals may potentially require new access infrastructure or enhancements to existing infrastructure, or otherwise result in potential pressure on key national transport infrastructure or resources without a fundamentally STAG-based assessment having been undertaken. Such proposals, either at development planning or developer-led stages, will require to demonstrate a particularly robust case including STAG appraisal of the transport effects. It will normally be necessary to look at the accessibility of the site and its transport impacts in line with the advice in this PAN. A thorough study of the options (e.g mixed modes) including those on land not owned by the developer should be made, with alternatives to solely road-based direct access to trunk roads or motorways factored in. It cannot be assumed that development can consume public infrastructure resources without this level of justification. Such proposals will require to be assessed using STAG if any approval of or funding by the Scottish Executive is necessary.
60. Policy on roadside services is contained within SPP17. Annex F to this PAN sets out the background definitions and conditions under which development can be signed as roadside services on the trunk road and motorway network.
Influencing Travel Modes
61. Influencing the choice of travel mode an individual takes requires knowledge of how people travel and understanding why people travel the way they do. The use of measures and resources can then be targeted directly and efficiently to influence behaviour.
62. SPP17 refers to the contribution different travel modes make to sustainable personal access. In order of preference and as priorities for integrated land use and transport planning they are walking, then cycling, public transport and finally motorised modes. A variety of measures can be implemented that encourage the use of alternative modes of transport other than the car 20.
63. The implementation of the variety of measures given below will be more effective through consultation with interested parties. Both public and private sectors need to demonstrate innovative and entrepreneurial thinking along with a willingness to try alternatives. Linking with voluntary and community schemes can prove successful and provide good value solutions to local needs. Ideas can be developed to suit particular circumstances, for example, subsidised taxis for targeted groups.
64. When designing a proposal these measures can be built into the development as incentives and disincentives to reduce or alter trip making decisions and behaviour. The measures can be specific to a particular mode, examples of which are given below, or they can be more broadly applicable, for example:
- The use of urban design principles 21;
- Setting up of a Transport Working Party for larger proposals;
- Appointment of a Travel Co-ordinator.
65. Walking is the most sustainable mode and requires relatively little investment to make it attractive, particularly if planned and designed into a new development from the outset. Planning can encourage walking to become the prime mode for shorter journeys through arranging land uses, by utilising urban design and encouraging specific schemes, such as Safer Routes to Schools. Local pedestrian networks should be analysed to provide the basis for network-wide improvement programmes. Evaluation of new and existing pedestrian routes should consider:
- Is the development likely to be a significant attractor and generator of trips on foot, e.g. a school, college or stadium;
- Is the development located on existing or potential pedestrian links e.g. between a housing estate and shops;
- What are the likely level of pedestrian flows, at peak and off-peak times e.g. a cinema's peak flows will be at different times to most shops;
- What types of pedestrians are likely to use the routes e.g. are flows predominantly the young, elderly, women or mobility impaired.
66. Planning authorities should include proposals to make appropriate areas and developments safer and more attractive to people on foot. Individual proposals should encourage walking by ensuring that pedestrian routes:
- Form networks with destination land uses, for example housing, local neighbourhood facilities and centres and consider the destinations special design requirements, for example potential flows, desire lines, time of use and pedestrians' need to avoid steep inclines;
- Are of a high quality design, including directness, signage, lighting, vegetation, drainage and surfacing (material and width) for all users; and
- Provides for personal security and links safety with other modes.
67. The SNH Access Forum supports the development of networks of paths, trails and green spaces for walking, cycling and horse riding both in and around settlements. The Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003 requires local authorities to draw up a network of Core Paths to give the public reasonable access throughout their area. These networks should wherever possible be linked to rail and bus stations, bus stops and existing car parks. The Walking Strategy for Scotland, to be published early in 2005, aims to guide and influence the development of local walking strategies and provides advice on implementing policy through practice.
68. There is no single correct method for developing suitable cycling infrastructure and for the foreseeable future most cycling will be on the existing road network. Much therefore remains dependent on the effective integration of cyclists' needs into the broader objectives of local authorities' transport proposals, including reallocation of road space. The aim is to provide and maintain a safe, convenient and attractive cycle network for users. Consideration, if relevant, should be given to the local authority's cycle strategy and thought should be given to the encouragement of:
- Cycle lanes and networks, especially those radiating direct from proposals;
- Cycle crossing points being provided;
- Covered, secure and well located cycle parking;
- Changing facilities;
- Utilisation of areas free from motorised traffic, such as former railways, canal paths and bridleways; and
- Suitable maintenance regimes.
69. Quality of public transport has to be high if motorists are to be enticed out of their cars. A change in mode can be encouraged through:
- Ensuring that new developments are well served early on;
- High quality infrastructure, with regard to interchanges, quality of vehicles and waiting areas and integration with walking and cycling networks, Park and Ride schemes and new railway stations;
- Diversion of existing services to a new development;
- Bus priority measures on main public transport corridors to the site;
- Good on-site access, stops and shelters and information;
- Tendering or provision of new and/or additional bus services and journeys to extend coverage by time of day, day of week;
- Demand responsive services to fill gaps in public transport coverage;
- Discounts on travel passes.
70. Everyone in society should have the opportunity for independent mobility. Measures should therefore be encouraged to make travel easier and more convenient for those who have additional mobility needs. Planning authorities are encouraged to consider developing supplementary planning guidance relating to accessibility for all. Such guidance could consider:
- Ensuring that local pedestrian networks are fully accessible;
- Clear and accessible timetables;
- Provision of parking spaces for those with physical disabilities, with children and the elderly in a location where passengers do not have to cross the road to reach their destination;
- Enforcement to ensure these spaces are not utilised by those who do not need to use them;
- Left luggage lockers for those with luggage / heavy shopping;
- Appropriate lighting and surveillance.
71. Inland waterways are increasingly used for recreation and land alongside can provide walking and cycling routes. They are important for their heritage and environmental value as well as for water supply and flood defence. They are however, an operational estate therefore access or diversion routes cannot be guaranteed and developers wishing to use the amenity of the canal system could be expected to make contributions towards facilities and its maintenance. Their potential to retain or return to a transport role should be assessed in liaison with the appropriate body, for example British Waterways, and any requirements incorporated into development plans. Severing or adversely affecting inland waterways should be avoided. New marinas and moorings should be located with good public transport services, walking and cycling access.
72. This PAN reinforces the principles and policy set out in SPP17. By aiming to provide a greater choice of transport modes, land use and transport planning can assist in influencing attitudes and changing the behaviour of individuals.
73. The integration of land use and transport planning is a key element of realising sustainable developments. By prioritising involvement at the earliest possible stage in the design process consensus can be built and experience gained that will enhance future planning. Linking the development plan and transport strategies taking into account all other necessary considerations in a context of co-operative working will greatly assist in achieving successful transport outcomes.
74. Enquiries about the content of this PAN should be addressed to Carrie Smith, SEDD Planning, Area 2-H, Victoria Quay, Edinburgh, EH6 6QQ (0131 244 7529) or by e-mail to email@example.com. This PAN and other SPPs, PANs and a list of Circulars can be viewed on the Scottish Executive website: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/planning.