Research Report: The Economic Impact of Game and Coarse Angling in Scotland
In August 2001, the Green Paper, Scotland'sFreshwater Fish and Fisheries: Securing Their Future, pointed to the lack of useful data quantifying the economic position of fresh water angling, whether on a national or a regional basis. Against this background, the Scottish Executive contracted the consultants to estimate the economic contribution to Scotland of freshwater angling.
The principal aim was to analyse the impact on income and employment of angler expenditure. Separate impact estimates were to be produced for each of seven regions (Dumfries and Galloway, Borders, Highlands, North East Scotland, Central Scotland, Western Isles, Orkney and Shetland) as shown in Figure 1. For each region, the impacts for four types of angling (Salmon and Sea Trout, Brown Trout, Rainbow Trout and Coarse Fish) were to be identified and categorised by the home region of the angler. The categorisations were local (from within the fishery region), Scottish visitor (from Scotland but out-with the fishery region) and Non-Scottish visitor (other parts of the UK plus overseas). In addition to the 28 region/fishery combinations, estimates were also to be produced for Scotland as a whole.
The research was undertaken by the following team: Alan Radford, Geoff Riddington and John Anderson of the Division of Economics and Enterprise, Caledonian Business School, Glasgow Caledonian University and Hervey Gibson of Cogentsi Research International Ltd 2 who produced the models of the regional economies.
The output from the project exists in various forms:
Provides a literature review, full details of all aspects of the research process, including construction of the models of the local economy and all associated outputs.
Contains a limited review of the literature, provides an overview of the research process and presents the principal results.
An overview of the principal results presented at a high level of aggregation
Figure 1: The regions of Scotland used in this report
1.3 Structure of the Research Report
The remainder of this section provides a brief overview of the study method. Thereafter this report is structured as follows:
Section 2: Literature Review
Section 3: The Survey of Anglers and the Angler Database
Section 4: The Survey of Owners and the Fisheries Database
Section 5: Angler Activity and Angler Expenditure
Section 6: The Impact of Angler Expenditure on Regional Output, and Income
Section 7: Regional Employment Effects
Section 8: Impact on the Scottish Economy
Section 9: Concluding Note.
1.4 Overview of the study method
The overall research effort involved a range of approaches.
a) Qualitative research involving a critical evaluation of the literature and discussions with the various stakeholder groups. The full literature review is available in the Technical Report, an abbreviated review is presented in the next section.
b) A survey of anglers that sought to estimate:
The average expenditure per angler day for each of the 28 region/fishery combinations; and
The estimated expenditure diverted as anglers pursue substitute activity if a particular choice' region/fishery combination were not available.
The survey of anglers used a variety of instruments including face-to-face interviews conducted at fisheries, self-completion questionnaires distributed by post and made available on-site at fisheries. In addition, an electronic questionnaire was placed on the University web site, to which hot links were established on national and international angling web sites.
c) A survey of owners that sought to construct a database of every fishery in Scotland, containing information on:
A variety of instruments were employed in constructing this database, including telephone interviews, personal visits, expert interviews, self-completion questionnaires distributed by the consultants and by organisations representing fishery owners. There was also some use of available secondary data for the Borders and the Western Isles.
d) Construction of economic models specific to each of the seven regional economies that enabled the consultants to trace through the impact of angler expenditure on regional incomes and employment. These models were based on input-output and trade tables specific to each region 3. These highly sophisticated models allowed an extensive range of indicators to be generated for each of the region/fishery combinations, including the following ten:
In addition, for each region/fishery combination, angler expenditure was categorised as, local (i.e. from within the region), from elsewhere in Scotland or from outside Scotland. The impact of these three categories of spending was tracked through the models and each of the ten indicators are available separately for each category of spending. Thus a total of 30 indicators for each of the 28 region/fishery combination are produced. The output for all region/fishery combinations is available in the Technical Report.
The consultants are deeply indebted to the anglers, owners and club secretaries who completed questionnaires. In addition, there were many individuals who provided valuable assistance and advice. Particular thanks go to Bob Henderson, David Dunkley, David Summers, James Leeming, Andrew Wallace, Brian Davidson, Ron Woods, Dominic Moore, Jim Boyd, George Holdsworth, Jane Wright, James Butler, Michael Brady, Peter Murray, Nick Chisholm. Ewan Brodie, Fred Rind, Miles Larby, Robert Fettes, Hugh Campbell-Adamson, James Campbell-Adamson, Mark Andrew, Chris Whealing, Sir Michael Wigan, John Salkeld, Niall Graham-Campbell, Edward Mountain, Jim Allingham, Lawrence Larmour, Rhoderick Noble, Sandy Murray, Roger Bradley, Robert Shields, Steven Gibbs.