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Research Report: The Economic Impact of Game and Coarse Angling in Scotland

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Research Report: The Economic Impact of Game and Coarse Angling in Scotland

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Economic Impact of Game and Coarse Angling in Scotland

Alan Radford, Geoff Riddington, John Anderson, Glasgow Caledonian University

Hervey Gibson, Cogentsi Research International Ltd

This Executive Summary presents the principal results of a study to assess the economic impact of game and coarse angling in Scotland. The Research Report provides more detail and a greater level of disaggregation, whereas the Technical Report should be consulted for full details of all aspects of the research process and results.

1. BACKGROUND

In August 2001, the Green Paper, Scotland'sFreshwater Fish and Fisheries: Securing Their Future, pointed to the lack of useful data quantifying the economic position of fresh water angling, whether on a national or a regional basis. Against this background, the Scottish Executive contracted the consultants to estimate the economic contribution to Scotland of fresh water angling. The principal aim was to analyse the impact of angler expenditure on output income and employment. Separate impact estimates were to be produced for each of seven regions (Dumfries and Galloway, Borders, Highlands, North East Scotland, Central Scotland, Western Isles, Orkney and Shetland) and for each of four types of angling (Salmon and Sea Trout, Brown Trout, Rainbow Trout and Coarse Fish). In addition to these 28 region/fishery combinations, estimates were also to be produced for Scotland as a whole.

2. RESEARCH METHOD

There were three key elements of the research activity.

2.1 Construction of Fisheries Data Base

Extensive surveys of fishery owners enabled the construction of a database containing details of 2830 brown trout, rainbow trout and coarse fisheries, plus salmon and sea trout fisheries on a river-by-river basis. From the database, it is possible to aggregate individual details to provide estimates of angler fishing effort (measured in angler days) for Scotland as a whole, or for four fishing types, or for seven regions. For salmon and sea trout fisheries, estimates are available on a river-by-river basis. Other fisheries can be aggregated by Unitary Authority area or any other geographical boundary. The database also provides a breakdown of angler effort according to angler origins (e.g. total angler days by local anglers, Scottish visiting anglers, non-Scottish visiting anglers).

2.2 Construction of Angler Data Base

Extensive surveys of anglers resulted in a database containing details of over 3000 cases detailing locations of angling, home, species, expenditure and constituents of that expenditure. The database also incorporates a substitution analysis that provides information on angler responses if a particular region/fishery type were not available and the consequential impact on their expenditure.

2.3 Economic Impact Analysis

The seven regional economies were modelled using an approach that utilised specific models for angling. The regional models incorporate trade matrices between 53 regions 1 for the128 individual Standard Industrial Classification categories consistent with known published information and the technical coefficients derived from the Scottish Input-Output Tables. For each region/fishery combination, the models can estimate the impact of angler expenditure on income, output and employment at the regional, Scottish and UK levels. Moreover, these effects can be disaggregated by local angler expenditure, by visiting Scottish angler expenditure and by non-Scottish angler expenditure.

3. THE REGIONAL IMPACT OF ANGLING: PRINCIPAL RESULTS

From the angler database, the following distribution of angler effort by region and by species is given in Table 1.

Table 1 Angler Days Summary Table

Salmon& Sea Trout

Brown Trout

Rainbow Trout

Coarse Fish

Regional Total

Dumfries and Galloway

48,245

28,195

17,337

23,926

117,703

The Borders

43,000

17,884

10,942

315

72,141

Highland

190,589

78,576

26,702

10,915

306,782

North East Scotland

190,853

54,715

108,894

11,402

365,864

Central Scotland

61,646

134,391

231,615

45,581

473,233

Western Isles

10,715

12,606

<100

<100

23,321

Orkney and Shetland

<100

27,000

<100

<100

27,000

Scotland Total

545,048

353,367

395,490

92,139

1,386,043

The three most important regions are Highlands, North East and Central Scotland. The region receiving the greatest angler effort is Central Scotland, in part due to the amount of rainbow trout angling in this region. Across Scotland, in terms of angler effort, salmon and sea trout angling is the most important type of angling and is the largest fishery in Dumfries and Galloway, the Borders, Highland and the North East.

Total angler expenditure was estimated by using the fisheries database to scale angler daily expenditure estimates. From Table 2 below, it is estimated that anglers spend a total of 113million on angling in Scotland, with salmon and sea trout anglers accounting for over 65% (73m) of this total.

Table 2. Total Angler Expenditure Summary Table ( 000s)

Salmon & Sea Trout

Brown Trout

Rainbow Trout

Coarse Fish

Total

Dumfries and Galloway

2,962

1,186

1,206

1,397

6,751

The Borders

6,669

672

607

16

7,964

Highlands

35,408

5,088

1,752

715

42,963

North East Scotland

24,344

1,589

4,910

824

31,667

Central Scotland

3,386

5,234

10,963

1,930

21,513

Western Isles

719

458

<1

<1

1,177

Orkney and Shetland

<1

511

<1

<1

511

Scotland Total

73,488

14,739

19,438

4,882

112,547

The substitution analysis was used to estimate the expenditure lost to each region if a particular type of angling ceased to exist. This is given in Table 3 below.

Table 3 Expenditure Loss Summary Table ('000s)

Salmon & Sea Trout

Brown Trout

Rainbow Trout

Coarse Fish

Total

Dumfries and Galloway

1,754

911

584

846

4,094

The Borders

4,526

420

293

10

5,249

Highlands

20,698

2,804

977

343

24,821

North East Scotland

15,322

1,202

2,896

249

19,670

Central Scotland

2,044

2,341

4,879

811

10,075

Western Isles

162

246

<1

<1

408

Orkney and Shetland

<1

322

<1

<1

322

Each cell in the Table 3 reflects the regional expenditure that would be lost, in circumstances where other types of angling are still available in the region, and the first choice type of angling is still available in other Scottish regions. For example, from Table 3, it can be seen that 20.7m of expenditure would be lost in the Highland region if salmon and sea trout fishing were to cease.

Tracking the above estimated expenditure changes through the models of the regional economy, produces the following estimated impact on regional output (Table 4) regional income (Table 5) and regional employment (Table 6).

Table 4 Impact on Total Regional Output ('000s)

Salmon & Sea Trout

Brown Trout

Rainbow Trout

Coarse Fish

Dumfries and Galloway

1,682

772

549

704

The Borders

4,587

340

256

9

Highlands

24,592

2,980

1,039

374

North East Scotland

18,644

1,116

3,050

279

Central Scotland

2,633

2,629

5,831

832

Western Isles

133

214

<1

<1

Orkney and Shetland

<1

238

<1

<1

Table 5 Impact on Regional Income (Gross Value Added) ('000s)

Salmon & Sea Trout

Brown Trout

Rainbow Trout

Coarse Fish

Dumfries and Galloway

842

376

284

354

The Borders

2,469

176

136

4

Highlands

12,504

1,524

535

187

North East Scotland

9,310

545

1,486

137

Central Scotland

1,253

1,246

2,786

379

Western Isles

86

126

<1

<1

Orkney and Shetland

<1

121

<1

<1

Table 6 Impact on Regional Employment (Full-Time Job Equivalents)

Salmon & Sea Trout

Brown Trout

Rainbow Trout

Coarse Fish

Dumfries and Galloway

88

38

34

38

The Borders

136

11

10

0

Highlands

781

122

37

12

North East Scotland

688

34

171

27

Central Scotland

63

43

218

25

Western Isles

20

14

N.A.

N.A.

Orkney and Shetland

N.A.

13

N.A.

N.A.

Table 4 informs us that if salmon angling in the Highland region ceased, the 20.7m loss in angler expenditure (see Table 3) would reduce Highland output by 24.6. This fall in output would in turn reduce annual household income in the Highlands by 12.5m (Table 5) and employment by 781 full time equivalent jobs (Table 6).

4 THE SCOTTISH IMPACT OF ANGLING: PRINCIPAL RESULTS:

The angler substitution analysis reveals how angler expenditure would change in circumstances where other types of angling are still available in the region, and the first choice type of angling is still available in other Scottish regions. Unfortunately, the angler questionnaires could not accommodate questions about angler alternatives if a type of angling ceased throughout Scotland, or indeed if all forms of angling ceased in Scotland. The estimation of Scottish level impacts therefore had to rely on making assumptions and distinctions between locals and visitors to Scotland. Table 7 below, provides estimates of spending by local anglers (from within the fishery region) Scottish visiting anglers (from Scotland but out-with the fishery region) and non-Scottish visiting anglers (other parts of the UK plus overseas)

Table 7. Angler Expenditure by Origin (million)

Salmon & Sea Trout

Brown Trout

Rainbow Trout

Coarse Fish

Total

Local

17.0

6.8

10.9

2.2

36.8

Scottish Visiting

7.7

3.7

4.5

0.8

16.8

Non Scottish Visiting

48.8

4.2

4.1

1.8

58.9

All Anglers

73.5

14.7

19.4

4.9

112.5

The first rows in Tables 8, 9 and 10 are based on the assumption that all Scottish anglers continue to fish in Scotland whilst all non-Scottish visitors leave when they cannot fish the region/fishery combination they want. This will result in a loss of 58.9m of expenditure in the Scottish economy. The assumption that no Scottish angler will go elsewhere to fish is too strong. It was therefore assumed that those Scottish anglers already visiting other regions for their fishing (Scottish visiting anglers) would take 50% of their expenditure elsewhere outside Scotland. This amounts to 8.4m of lost expenditure. The combined effects of this lost expenditure (67.3m) on Scottish output, income and employment are shown in the second rows of Tables 8, 9 and 10.

Table 8. Impact on Scottish Output (million)

Salmon & Sea Trout

Brown Trout

Rainbow Trout

Coarse Fish

Total

Non Scottish Visiting Lost

75.0

7.7

5.7

2.3

90.7

Non Scottish Visiting + 50% of Scottish visiting anglers

80.9

10.4

8.7

5.2

105.0

Table 9 Impact on Scottish Household Income (million)

Salmon & Sea Trout

Brown Trout

Rainbow Trout

Coarse Fish

Total

Non Scottish Visiting Lost

36.2

2.7

2.8

1.1

42.8

Non Scottish Visiting + 50%

of Scottish visiting anglers

39.0

3.9

4.2

1.3

48.4

Table 10. Impact on Scottish Employment (Full-Time Job Equivalents)

Salmon & Sea Trout

Brown Trout

Rainbow Trout

Coarse Fish

Total

Non Scottish Visiting Lost

2,033

157

183

76

2,449

Non Scottish Visiting + 50% of Scottish visiting anglers

2,200

229

264

93

2,786

The best estimate therefore is that freshwater angling in Scotland results in the Scottish economy producing over 100m worth of annual output, which support around 2,800 jobs and generates nearly 50m in wages and self-employment income to Scottish households. This is a significant contribution and it should be appreciated that salmon and sea trout angling has probably provided its annual contribution for most of the last century.