Teaching Resource Pack
History of Transplantation
To create awareness of the history of transplantation and its development to the present day.
Organ donation and transplantation is the process of removing an organ from one person and implanting it in another. The organ being removed must be donated ('gifted'). Following a transplant about 2,700 people take on a new lease of life in the UK every year.
Kidney transplants are the most commonly performed. Transplants are regularly carried out on the heart, liver, lungs and pancreas.
Tissue such as corneas, heart valves, skin, bone and tendons can also be donated and transplanted.
Today more than 5,500 people in the UK are waiting for an organ transplant that could save their life or dramatically improve their quality of life.
Transplants are one of the most miraculous achievements of modern medicine. However, they depend on the generosity of donors and their families.
The increasing effectiveness of transplantation means that many more patients can be considered for treatment. More people also need a transplant, but there is a serious shortage of donor organs. For some people this means waiting, sometimes for years, and undergoing difficult and stressful treatment. For all too many it means they will die before a suitable organ becomes available.
Alexis Carrel demonstrates method of joining blood vessels to make organ transplant feasible.
First reported cornea transplant takes place Olmutz, Moravia (now Czech Republic).
Blood transfusion becomes established.
Foundation of the National Health Service.
First kidney transplant operation performed in USA.
First successful living donor kidney transplant performed in UK.
First liver transplant.
First kidney transplant in UK using organ from a person who has died.
First heart transplant operation performed by Dr Christian Barnard in South Africa.
First heart transplant in UK.
First liver transplant in UK.
National Tissue Typing and Reference Laboratory (NTTRL) established at Southmead Hospital, Bristol.
Kidney donor card introduced in UK.
National Organ Matching and Distribution Service (NOMDS) founded in Bristol.
NTTRL and NOMDS merge to become UK Transplant Service.
First transplant co-ordinators appointed.
UK kidney donor card changed to multi-organ card including kidneys, corneas, heart, liver and pancreas.
Launch of the UK Cornea Transplant Service (CTS).
First combined heart and lung transplant in UK.
Lungs added to the UK donor card.
First lung-only transplant in UK.
Establishment of the Bristol Eye Bank.
First 'domino' UK heart transplant, where the patient receiving a heart and lung transplant donated their healthy heart to another.
Establishment of the Manchester Eye Bank.
UK Transplant Service becomes special health authority and is re-named United Kingdom Transplant Support Service Authority (UKTSSA).
NHS Organ Donor Register established.
First living donor liver transplant in UK.
First living donor lung lobe transplant in UK.
NHS UK Transplant takes over from UKTSSA with new, extended remit.