Maximising economic opportunities for women to participate fully in the economy, and recognising the wider social role they provide, is key to improving economic performance and tackling inequality. Supporting women to overcome the barriers and structural challenges they face in the labour market is good for women and families, good for business and good for the Scottish economy.
An equal and fair country for all means valuing women’s work as highly as men’s. The gender pay gap is unacceptable and does not fit with a modern, prosperous, inclusive economy.
The causes and drivers of the gender pay gap are complex and interrelated. They include:
- Challenging the segregation of men and women into different job sectors and industries
- Increasing the representation of women in senior management roles and in the boardroom
- Paying women the same as men for the same or equivalent work
- Challenging direct discrimination including pregnancy and maternity discrimination
- The availability of affordable child care provision and equal sharing of family, care and domestic responsibilities. The task of looking after dependent family members is still largely borne by women
- More opportunities for flexible working, for example job shares or quality part-time work
The Scottish Government is determined to reduce gender inequality and improve women’s position in the workplace and, indeed, in all aspects of Scottish life. Scotland's strong commitment to equality is at the core of Scotland’s Economic Strategy. The Government’s role is to ensure that our nation’s wealth, resources and opportunities are distributed fairly and address the underlying causes of inequality. Whilst the Scottish Government cannot achieve this on its own, we can play a role in creating, promoting and supporting the right environment and conditions for a fairer Scotland.
The Scottish Government is involved in a range of activity to reduce the gender pay gap, including:
Ensuring greater pay transparency - The Equality Act 2010 (Specific Duties) (Scotland) Amendment Regulations 2016 lower the threshold for listed public authorities to report their gender pay gap and publish equal pay statements.
Increasing early learning and childcare provision, from 600 to 1140 hours a year, by the end of the next parliament and funding and playing an active role in the Family Friendly Working Scotland Partnership
Working with the Equality and Human Rights Commission to challenge pregnancy and maternity discrimination
Implementing our Developing the Young Workforce - Scotland's Youth Employment Strategy to address gender imbalances in young people’s career choices and opportunities.
In partnership with Skills Development Scotland and Scottish Funding Council we have set ambitious targets to increase the gender minority share in the most imbalanced college subjects groups and Modern Apprentice frameworks by 2021.
Taking action to improve women’s representation on boards for example through the introduction of the Gender Representation on Public Boards (Scotland) Bill on 15 June 2017 andthe Partnership for Change 50/50 by 2020 campaign
Promoting adoption of the Living Wage via; The Scottish Business Pledge and increasing the number of Living Wage Accredited employers
Implementing the provisions in The Procurement Reform (Scotland) Act 2014 which help tackle living wage and fair work practices through public bodies’ procurement activity
Full-time gender pay gap
Since 1997, the gender pay gap, based on full-time employees, in Scotland has narrowed considerably from 18.4% in 1997 to 6.6% in 2017.
Despite this long term decline, the gender pay gap has fluctuated in recent years, being as narrow as 6.6% in 2011 before widening again to 9.1% in 2014.
All employees gender pay gap
(based on full-time and part-time employees)
Since 1997, the gender pay gap for all employees in Scotland has narrowed considerably from 26.5% in 1997 to 16.1% in 2017.
Despite this long term decline, the gender pay gap for all employees has fluctuated in recent years, narrowing to 16.6% in 2011 before widening again to 17.6% in 2012 and 2014.
The data is available at the bottom of the page.
What more do we know about this National Indicator?
The gender pay gap is often represented as a single figure, but no single measure adequately represents the complex issues underlying differences between men’s and women’s pay. The gender pay gap can also be measured for all employees i.e. those included in the survey who are classed either as part-time or as full-time.
The Scottish Government publication New perspectives on the Gender Pay Gap: Trends and Drivers describes the different ways of presenting the gender pay gap.
Further measures of the gender pay gap are published on the Scottish Government web site at the following location: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Labour-Market/Earnings/ASHE-SGTables
The evaluation is based on: any difference within +/- 1.5 percentage points of last year’s figure suggests that the position is more likely to be maintaining than showing any change. A decrease in the gap of 1.5 percentage points or more suggests that the position is improving; whereas an increase in the gap of 1.5 percentage points or more suggests the position is worsening.
For information on general methodological approach, please click here.
Scotland Performs Technical Note
Close the Gap
Equality and Human Rights Commission
Scottish Funding Council
Skills Development Scotland
Strategic Group on Women and Work
Wealthier & Fairer
Safer & Stronger